Institutional Factors and Implementation of Strategic Plans in Program for Appropriate Technology in Health: A Case Study of Kisumu County, Kenya

  • John Oketch Mireri Program Manager, American International Health Alliance, Kenya
  • James Oringo Program Manager, American International Health Alliance, Kenya
Keywords: Institutional Factors, Strategic Plans, Appropriate Technology.

Abstract

Strategy implementation is continually becoming a key challenge for organizations in these modern times. The business context in which Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) is operating is an ever-changing environment. The organization has been faced by challenges in implementing their strategies such as lack of strategic consensus and clarity, little reward, no relief from normal responsibilities for implementers, coordinating and integrating activities of participating individuals and functions and lack of honest upward conversations about barriers and underlying causes by top-down management style. In this regard this study sought to determine the influence of institutional Factors on successful implementation of strategic plans in PATH. The specific objectives of the study were to establish the influence of communication, organizational structure, resource allocation and organizational culture on successful implementation of strategic plans. The study was guided by contingency theory, the cybernetics theory and the resource dependency theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The unit of analysis was PATH and the unit of observation was 10 managers and 80 support staff of PATH. A census of 90 respondents was carried out. Questionnaires were used as data collection instruments. Descriptive statistical analysis such as mean and standard deviation was used to analyze quantitative and presented in terms of tables, frequencies, graphs and charts. Multiple regression analysis was carried out to analyze data. The study revealed that communication, organizational structure, resource allocation and organizational culture positively and significantly influenced strategy implementation. The study concludes that communication helps management of PATH to share its mission, vision and values with employees and to achieve specific goals.The structure of PATH helps in streamlining operations, improving decision making, operating in multiple market locations, enhancing customer service, and boosting employee performance and creativity. Resource allocation helps PATH to improve effectiveness and efficiency of activities in order to make savings that will improve the overall implementation of strategic plan of the organization. The organization’s culture is often the most important determiner in successful implementation in PATH. The study recommends that the management of PATH should not over rely on written communication by presenting the strategic plan in many different ways and be creative with how they present your plan. The management of PATH should pinpoint the key functions and tasks requisite for successful strategy execution, reflect on how the strategy-critical functions and organizational units relate to those that are routine and to those that provide staff support, make strategy-critical business units and functions the main organizational building blocks, determine the degrees of authority needed to manage each organizational unit. The management of PATH needs to have sufficient funds and enough time to support strategy implementation. The management of PATH should adopt a culture that is dynamic, flexible and adaptive.

References

Ahmadi, A., Ali, S., Salamzadeh, Y., Daraei, M., & Akbari, J. (2012). Relationship between Organizational Culture and Strategy Implementation: Typologies and Dimensions. GlobalBusiness & Management Research, 4(5), 123 - 132

Akpan, E., & Waribugo, S. (2016). The Impact of Structure on Strategy Implementation Among Telecommunication Firms in Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Management, 8(14), 59 - 68

Akuei, A. M. A., Katuse, P., & Njenga, K. (2016). The Role of Organization Culture on Effective Strategy Implementation among Commercial Banks in South Sudan.The International Journal of Business & Management, 4(6), 391 - 394

Aulakh, P. S. & Kotabe, M. (2009). Antecedents and performanceimplications ofchannel integration in foreign markets. Journal of International Business Studies,28,145-175

Ayusa, E. N. (2016). Communication and Strategy Implementation in Telecommunication Firms in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, School of Business, University of Nairobi).

Brenes, E. R., & Mena, M. (2012). Key success factors for strategy implementation in Latin. America. Journal of business research, 61(6), 590–598.

Cater, T. & Pucko, D. (2017). Factors of effective strategy implementation: Empirical evidence from Slovenian business practice. Journal for East European Management Studies, 15(3), 207-236.

David, F.R. (2005). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. Prentice Hall, (10th ed) PearsonEducation International

David, H. H. (2015). The Impact of Strategic Management on Organizational Growth and Development.

Dyson, R. G. (2014). Strategic development and SWOT analysis at the University of Warwick. European journal of operational research, 152(3), 631-640.

Haleblian et al, (2009). Taking stock of what we know about mergers and acquisitions: A review and research agenda

Heracleous, L. (2016). The role of strategy implementation in organization development. Organization Development Journal, 18(3), 75-86

Hill, C. & Jones, G. R. (2010). Essentials of Strategic Management. New York, NY: Cengage Learning

Isaboke, C. M. (2015). Influence of organization culture on strategy implementation in selected universities in Kenya. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(9), 806-820.

Kamau, L. N. M. (2015). Institutional factors influencing implementation of strategic plans in government hospitals in Kitui Central Sub-County, Kitui County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation).

Kiplagat, V. (2014). Strategy Implementation Challenges In Government Parastatals: A Case of Kenya Revenue Authority (Doctoral dissertation, United States International University- Africa).

Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Age International.

Lemarleni, J. E., Ochieng,I., Gakobo,T. & Mwaura, P. (2017). Effects of resource allocation on strategy implementation at Kenya Police Service in Nairobi County. International Academic Journal of Human Resource and Business Administration, 2(4), 1-26

Matanda and Ewing (2012). The process of global brand strategy development and regional implementation

McMahon, J. T. (1972). The contingency theory: Logic and method revisited. Personnel psychology, 25(4), 697-710.

Mody, A. (2009). Learning through alliances. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 20, 151-169

Mugenda, O. & Mugenda, A. (2003). Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.

Mutisya, S. (2016). Influence Of Communication On Strategy Implementation Among Pharmaceutical Companies In Nairobi Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, United States International University-Africa).

Ng’enoh, J. (2013). Organization Structure and Strategy Implementation in Selected Major Banks in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, School of Business, University of Nairobi).

Olang, J. A. (2015). The Role of Communication in Strategy Implementation: The Case of African Women in Agricultural Research and Development (Doctoral dissertation, United States International University-Africa).

Ouma, S. S., & Gichinga, L. (2017). Determinants of Effective Strategy Implementation in the Insurance Industry in Kenya-A Case Study of AAR Insurance. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 3(3).

Pearce, J. A. & Robinson, R.B. (2015). Strategic Management: Strategy, Formulation, Implementation and Control. 6thEdition. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Pfeffer and Salancik (1978). The external con-trol of organizations

Porter, M. E. (1980). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors,the Free Press, New York, NY

Rajasekar, J. (2014). Factors affecting effective strategy implementation in a service industry: A study of electricity distribution companies in the Sultanate of Oman. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(9), 415 - 426

Siapei, I. (2015). Organizational Structure and Strategy Implementation at Geothermal Development Company in Kenya. (Master’s Project, University of Nairobi).

Thompson, A. & Strickland, A. (2010). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, Edition, Boston:Irwin.

Viseras, E. M. Baines, T.,& Sweeney, M. (2015). Key success factors when implementing strategic manufacturing initiatives. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 2(5), 151 - 179

Waithira Ng’ang’a, L., Waiganjo, E. W., & Njeru, A. W. (2017). Influence of Organizational Resources Portfolio on Organizational Performance in Tourism Government Agencies in Kenya.International Journal of Business and Commerce, 6(4), 01 - 17

Published
2019-05-29
Section
Articles