American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) <div style="float: left; width: 315; text-align: center; margin-left: 5px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <a title="home page for American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (<strong>ASRJETS</strong>)</a>&nbsp;is <strong>multidisciplinary&nbsp;<strong>peer reviewed </strong>Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papersreview articles, short communications and technical reports in all main branches of science (All scientific disciplines) such as Social Sciences , Natural Sciences , Formal Sciences, and Applied science.&nbsp;(but not limited to):</strong>&nbsp;anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education,&nbsp; 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For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/about">About the Journal</a>&nbsp;page.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> Global Society of Scientific Research and Researchers en-US American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2313-4410 <p>Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> Histology Study of Liver Changes Paracetamol-Induced Wistar Rats Treated with Sunkist (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Extract <p>Unclear and high incidence and prevalence of hepatitis over the world. The peels extract of <em>Citrus sinensis</em> is riched in various phytochemical compound which may have antioxidant effects. This study is aimed to investigae the protection effect of ethanol extract from <em>Citrus sinensis</em> by histologic study of liver tissues in paracetamol-induced wistar rats. This study was using 15 rats which were divided into 5 groups included negative control, positive control, and ethanol extract groups (300 mg/kg b.w; 450 mg/kg b.w; 600 mg/kg b.w), after 14 days the rats was terminated and the liver was process to histology view.&nbsp; The result of this study showed that there was reducing in severity of degeneration following increasing of ethanol extract dosage. Based on the result study, ethanol extract of <em>Citrus sinensis</em> potentially has liver protection against paracetamol at highest dosgae by histology study.</p> Maya Sari Mutia Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-08-20 2019-08-20 59 1 1 7 Evaluation of mRNA Markers for Estimating Blood Deposition Time <p>RNA analysis provide insight into diseases, molecular identification of body fluids and mechanisms leading to death and might develop into a valuable tool for identification of the cause of death in forensic pathology. Further potential uses are the determination of the age of wounds and the post-mortem interval. In this proof-of-concept pilot study clarifies and explains principles, applications and methods by offering a comprehensive and complete overview of using mRNA markers for estimating blood deposition time which can help to evaluate the time of the crime in forensic RNA work. The study presented in this thesis aimed to estimate the time passed since blood stains found in the crime scene by calculating the time of deposited blood using particular mRNA markers and unravelling one of the principles of at what time – when during the day or night a biological evidence was left at the scene – by applying the insights from circadian biology to some open forensic cases. By analyzing 4 candidate mRNA markers expression in peripheral blood samples collected from 29 health males. Blood samples were collected from healthy persons for the duration of the 24 hours’ day/night interval under four different groups, i.e. night/early, morning early morning/morning, morning/afternoon and afternoon/night. This study identified 2 mRNAs with statistically significant expression rhythms which are MKNK2 and PER 3. It’s found that, in general mRNA-based estimation of time categories was less accurate. The value of mRNA was demonstrated for blood deposition timing and introduced a statistical model for estimating day/night time categories based on molecular biomarkers, which shall be further validated with additional samples in the future.</p> A. Taha L. Mohamed J. Salehi Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-08-20 2019-08-20 59 1 8 26 A Review on Sustainability of Community-Led Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Systems with Special Reference to Berik Sub-Zone in Eritrea <p>This Assessment of the Sustainability of Community-Led Rural Water Supply and Sanitation System with special reference to Berik Sub-Zone in Eritrea was conducted between August 2018 and March 2019. Both published and unpublished literatures collected from various sources were critically reviewed and thoroughly analysed. After the literature review it was found that the participatory approach was the best method for sustainability of any water supply and sanitation project. Water supply projects is sustainable when consumers are aware to pay user fees that are sufficient to cover all the costs. In the study area, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Committees have been formed with the participation of women, men and people with disabilities. There has been tariff collection of 0.5 Nakfa to 1 Nakfa per jerrycan of 20 litres, availability of trained technicians, spare parts and plumbing tools to conduct regular repair and maintenance of the water supply system. There is a practice of regular meeting, monitoring and proper accounting for the sustainability of the water supply and sanitation system. Also, community participation, linkages and coordination with the local and national government lead to sustainability of the water supply and sanitation scheme.</p> Bipin Jha Narbikram Thapa Khet Raj Dahal Michael Yoseph Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-08-21 2019-08-21 59 1 27 41 Opportunities and Challenges for Integrating Statistical and Spatial Data in East African Countries <p>Statistical and spatial data integration for effective implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) while addressing emerging socio economic challenges and opportunities in developing countries is globally accepted for business, policy making and data driven decisions making process. However in the EAC countries despite of a considerable increase in birth of geographical data producers, vendors and users in EACs whom do not know about each other’s data holding or data needs little is known on the current opportunities and challenges for spatial and statistical data integration. In the recent there are numerous opportunities for integrating statistical and spatial data in EAC countries including availability of geographical data producers, vendors and users in EACs, availability of Geo-network portal, Region STAT and AQUASTAT program and fast emerging trends in technology development such as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). Among the challenges confronting the spatial and statistical data integration includes unwatched production of spatial data result much into more duplication of data, poor data quality control, inefficient use of the available data resources, suppression of the geo-information market and frustrated data users, absence of clearing house for EACs countries, lack of common geographic boundaries and data management systems, lack of adequate expertise and skilled labor for data integration, shortage of integrated infrastructure to support the integration initiatives of spatial statistical data, inconsistencies among the structure of the data, lack of regional level and well-defined frameworks. The EAC country Clearing house and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) programs&nbsp; at local need to be promoted for fast tracking the data integration in EAC countries while addressing the current challenges confronting the spatial and statistical data integration .</p> Job Chaula Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-08-24 2019-08-24 59 1 42 48 Evaluation of Residents’Accessibility and Utilization of Healthcare Facilities in Oko-Ito Gberigbe, Ikorodu Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria <p>This study evaluated the accessibility and utilization of healthcare facilities in Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. The World Health Organization emphasized the importance of healthy living, therefore, it becomes imperative for major stakeholders especially the Government, to ensure the availability of ultramodern healthcare facilities with adequate medical personnel and ensure equitable access by the residents. Socio-economic status of the residents, their location and accessibility are some of the factors identified that influence the residents’ use of the healthcare facility. For the purpose of this research, primary data was collected by random administration of questionnaire and direct interview of residents in Oko-Ito, Gberigbe, Ikorodu. The population of the study area is projected from 3,550 in 2015 to 4,035 in 2019 using the projection formula with a population growth rate of 3.2 percent. With the aid of SPSS, the data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Demographic features of the respondents such as gender, age, level of education and occupation were taken into consideration, and a bulk of the population of the respondents affirm that the utilization of the available healthcare facility, despite its distance from the study area, is greatly influenced by the fact that it is owned by the Government – a Primary Health Center located at Igbalu community with a walking distance of over 1km from the study area.</p> <p>The influencing factor for the utilization of this healthcare facility was evaluated using the Usage Factor Index (UFI) with ‘quality of staff’ having the highest coefficient followed by ‘nature of illness.’ ‘Proximity to home’ has the lowest coefficient followed by ‘good road network.’ The UFI values indicate the need for a standard healthcare facility in Oko-Ito community, and it is highly recommended for community leaders to reach out to all relevant stakeholders including religious bodies and Non-Governmental Organizations both at local and state level to help in building accessible health care facility in this community.</p> Omolola Adegoke Timothy Morenikeji Oladotun Morakinyo Rashidat Alade Sodiq Odutola Tobi Saliu Jessica Grant Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 59 1 49 62 The Impact of Motivation on the Employees in the Public Service Organisations: A Case of TEVETA, Lusaka, Zambia <p>One of the major problems faced in public service organisations is lack of motivation among public service employees. The objective of this study was to identify ways of motivating public service employees at TEVETA, Lusaka, Zambia. In order to achieve this objective a study was conducted using mixed research method (triangulation approach). Three specific research objectives with three related research questions were formulated. The theoretical framework for the study was premised on the Public Service Motivation (PSM) theory [9] Data for the qualitative research was collected using two focus group discussions and a questionnaire was also administered to collect quantitative data. The population was 68 employees with a sample size of 56 employees. The qualitative data was analysed by adopting a thematic approach. Quantitative data was analysed through the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) to obtain descriptive statistical information. The two methods were used to help validate and ascertain the reliability of the research findings.&nbsp; The findings indicated that in addition to financial rewards, non-financial rewards were equally important and played a major role in motivating public service employees. The study findings identified several motivating factors, key motivators and also measures that can be used to motivate employees. These factors were classified into two categories, namely intrinsic motivating factors and extrinsic motivating factors. The researcher in this study made conclusions and came up with practical implications of the study as part of the recommendations, in terms of the ways that TEVETA can use to address the problems of low motivation among its employees. Furthermore, suggestions were made on the directions of future research on Public Service Motivation (PSM).</p> Dr Geoffrey Kapasa Mweshi Mr. Phillip Mubanga Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-08-30 2019-08-30 59 1 63 75 Bootstrap Methods and Reproducibility Probability <p>Bootstrap method is one of the resampling methods, it is a powerful and computer-based method. We will use two different bootstrap methods, Efron’s bootstrap and smoothed Efron’s bootstrap. They are resampling methods but in different manner and will be explained later in this paper. The reproducibility probability is the important topic will be discussed here and will be used to compare the two bootstrap methods. It is reflecting the stability of the results of hypothesis tests, it is the probability of obtaining the same decision when repeated hypothesis test.</p> Sulafah Binhimd Bashair Almalki Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-08-30 2019-08-30 59 1 76 80 Building Sustainable Supply Chain Investment Decisions Through Financial Analysis - Case Study of Lusaka SMEs <p>The purpose of this paper was to establish whether there is a relationship between the ability to analyse financial statements by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Lusaka and their investment decisions. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;The study was quantitative in nature; data was collected through the distribution of questionnaires. The study used a probability sampling method known as cluster sampling in which the population was divided into clusters selected from all of its elements (SMEs) Selection of the cluster for the sample was done using the simple random sampling technique. Deductive reasoning was used in the research process with the intention to depart from the general theories and understanding concerning what influences investors’ investment decisions and it took time to actually study and analyse the information on the ground before either confirming or disputing the already existing theories about the use of financial statements in investment decisions.&nbsp; The findings of the study after testing the hypothesis showed that there was a significant relationship between investment decisions which was the dependent variable and the three independent variables (Knowledge of financial statement analysis, Credibility of Financial Statements and Access to Financial Statements). The study therefore concluded that these three factors, with the intervening variable of adequacy of information in financial statements, can influence the investment decisions of small and medium enterprises that may wish to invest their money into firms.&nbsp; The study has highlighted four variables that can influence a potential investor’s decision and companies that wish to attract investors can use the findings of this study to improve in areas of their operations that may dissuade potential investors from investing with them.</p> Dr Geoffrey Kapasa Mweshi Dr Kwesi Sakyi Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-08-30 2019-08-30 59 1 81 92 Microbial Infections Transmission through Meat Intake in Pakistan <p>Meat is one of the most consuming food items around the globe and also serves as vector for broad spectrum foodborne diseases. The occurrence of such ailments in developed countries is lower than the developed countries where overall conditions are not hygienic and up to the mark, from animal farming to meat processing and packing level. Likewise, in Pakistan, although poultry, dairy farming and fisheries departments are much established still improper slaughtering and meat handling, inappropriate ways of preservation and cooking along with poor shelf life are major issues. Parallel to these, lack of dose optimization either of vaccines and antibiotics also affect the meat quality. That’s why; implementation of preventive measures regarding animals and their meat handling and its preservation should be ensured. This target can be achieved by spreading general public awareness. In future, researchers should try to introduce such cost effective ways and methods which facilitate the farmers and other economically constraints facing people and also professional training sessions should be offered to those who are usually involved in poultry, animal and fish farming, meat handling, processing and transportation.</p> Anam Javed Amina Zulfiqar Tazeen Irum Tayyeba Asalm Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 59 1 93 104 Characterization and Efficacy of Bio-oil Obtained from Liquefied Hardwood Bark as Wood Preservative <p>The efficacy of bio-oil obtained via solvolysis liquefaction of <em>Detarium senegalense</em> J.F. Gmel bark as bio-preservative against fungi attack on <em>Gmelina arborea</em> wood was investigated, as a way of contributing to unrelenting researches aimed at achieving sustainable environment and preserving lignocellulosic materials. &nbsp;Ethanol, water and co-solvent of ethanol/water were used to directly liquefy <em>D. senegalense</em> bark at 300<sup>o</sup>C for 30min. The result of the structural compositional characterization reveals that,<em> D. senegalense</em> bark is composed of an average of 35.2% lignin, 46.8% cellulose and 18.0% hemicellulose. The result of the elemental analysis also showed that<em> Detarium senegalense</em> is composed of 53.82% carbon, 36.8% oxygen, 7.32% hydrogen, 0.14% nitrogen and 0.08% sulphur. Molecular weight characterization of the bio-oil as determined by the Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) revealed the bio-oils obtained from liquefaction using ethanol, water and ethanol/water mix had molecular weights of 15.56 x 10<sup>2</sup> Da, 14.17 x 10<sup>2</sup> Da, and 16.93 x 10<sup>2</sup> Da at an average respectively. Viscosity of the bio-oil obtained from liquefaction with ethanol/water was the highest and it was observed that viscosity increases as percentage concentration of the bio-oils increases. The FT-IR characterization of the bio-oils revealed the presence of primarily phenolic compounds and their derivatives such as benzenes, aldehyde, long-chain and cyclic ketones, alcohols, ester, organic acid, and ether compounds. Wood samples of <em>Gmelina arborea</em> of dimensions 50 x50 x 300mm were impregnated using vacuum method. The wood samples were exposed to brown rot fungi; (<em>Coniophora puteana</em>) for a period of 6 weeks. The percentage weight loss was determined. Maximum protection against the fungi was obtained using the co-solvent of ethanol/water at all the concentration levels.</p> <p>These results strongly suggested that synergistic effect of co-solvent of ethanol and water enhances the durability of <em>Gmelina arborea</em> wood at all levels of concentration. It was however, observed that high concentration does not implies ability to cause minimal weight loss in <em>Gmelina arborea</em> wood treated liquefied bio-oils. From this investigation, it was established that bio-oil obtained via solvolysis liquefaction of <em>Detarium senegalense</em> bark is a potential bio-preservative against fungi attack on of <em>Gmelina arborea</em> wood</p> Yetunde B. Olayiwola Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-09-03 2019-09-03 59 1 105 117 Modelling and Forecasting the Consumer Price Index in Bangladesh through Econometric Models <p>Persistent economic growth along with high Consumer Price Index (CPI) and low inflation is the major aim of the economic theory. This paper uses annual time series data on CPI from the period 1986 to 2018 and find the best econometric time series model for forecasting the CPI in Bangladesh. In this study different Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model are used. To find the best ARIMA model we have used here Akaike information criteria (AIC), corrected Akaike information criteria (AICc) and Bayesian information criteria (BIC). This study presents ARIMA (2, 2, 0) model to forecast the CPI in Bangladesh based on the lowest values of AIC, AICc and BIC than other ARIMA models. Based on the selected ARIMA (2, 2, 0) model we forecast the CPI in Bangladesh from period 2019 to 2025. The results of the study show that the CPI in Bangladesh is to continue an upward trend with respect to time.</p> Md. Shahajada Mia A H M Musfiqur Rahman Nabeen Mst. Masrufa Akter Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-09-03 2019-09-03 59 1 118 127 Quantitative Design Analysis of an Electric Scissor Lift <p>In the industry, as a lifting system, the electrical scissor lift system is commonly used. this system is mainly preferred to do Load lifting and lowering activities, cleaning services, and maintenance-repair activities. In this paper, quantitative design analysis of several principal components of an electric scissor lift will be undertaken. A brushless dc geared-motor will be used to drive the rear wheels of the vehicle within an industrial area with front-wheel steering. The scissor lift will be operated via a motor-ballscrew arrangement. A systematic and detailed evaluation of the design will be carried out with paying particular attention to several aspects such as actuator selection for wheel drive unit and lift motion, quantitative design of the wheel drive gearbox, gearbox bearing selection, qualitative design of scissor lift and ballscrew unit selection, stress analysis of scissor pin joints and ballscrew connections, and vehicle power requirements and the motor control.</p> Omar Yaseen Ismael Mohammed Almaged Ali Mahmood Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-09-03 2019-09-03 59 1 128 141 Protective Effect of Curcuma zedoria Against Copper in Rats’ White Blood Cell <p>Copper, an essential trace element, is essential for the human body to maintain homeostatic balance. Higher levels of copper in the human body can cause damage to the liver, kidney, and brain due to increased generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species). As an alternative solution, natural resources which can be used to reduce the impact of copper excess is <em>Curcuma zedoria</em> due to the presence of curcumin. This study was aimed to explore the protective effect of <em>Curcuma zedoria</em> against copper in rats using the WBC as an indicator. This study was performed using 15 rats that were divided into 5 groups consisting of a negative group, a positive group, and three experimental groups which were given ethanol extract of <em>Curcuma zedoria</em> in various dosage. Each group of rats was fed 0.36 mg/kg b.w of CuSO<sub>4</sub> solution on the 10<sup>th</sup> to 14<sup>th</sup> day of the experiment. The results showed that the level of band neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte increased following the reduction of the dosage of <em>Curcuma Zedoria </em>that given to the rats<em>.</em> However, the levels of monocyte in each group were within normal range except the negative group. Based on the higher levels of WBC, all of the experiment groups suffered chronic active inflammation. <em>Curcuma zedoria</em> had a protective effect against overexposure to copper in rats, but it didn’t completely protect the rats from the effects of overexposure.</p> Linda Chiuman Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-09-07 2019-09-07 59 1 142 148 The Effectiveness of Peperomia Pellucida Extract Against Acne Bacteria <p>Background: Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory condition in the pilosebaceous unit that occurs in adolescents and young adults characterized by blackheads, papules, pustules, nodules. Among all of these bacteria, <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em> have the most important role in the pathogenesis of acne. Some leaves called tumpangan air (<em>Peperomia pellucida</em>) are one type of plant that is widely used for treatment. This leaf has various pharmaceutical effects includes antimicrobial, anticancer, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-oedematogenic activities. Objective: This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of <em>Peperomia pellucida</em> in inhibiting the growth of <em>Propionibacterium acne</em> bacteria. Methods: Evaluation of antibacterial used agar diffusion method Which used ethanol extract of <em>Peperomia pellucida</em> (0.3 gr/ml, 0.5 gr/ml, 0.7 gr/ml and 1 gr/ml) as samples, gentamycin as positive, and DMSO as the negative control. Results: The higher concentration show higher antibacterial activity against <em>Propionibacterium acne</em> while the average of inhibition zone for 0.3 gr/ml, 0.5 gr/ml, 0.7 gr/ml and 1 gr/ml of ethanol extract from <em>Peperomia pellucida</em> were 9.53mm, 10.53mm, 0.7mm, 13.36 mm, and 15.70 mm, respectively. Conclusion: With the results, can be concluded that <em>Peperomia pellucida</em> extracts are anti-bacterial to inhibit the growth of <em>Propionibacterium acnes</em> bacteria.</p> Susan Kosasih Chrismis Novalinda Ginting Linda Chiuman I Nyoman Ehrich Lister Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-09-17 2019-09-17 59 1 149 153 Histological and Immunocytochemical Studies on the Buccal Minor Salivary Glands in Rabbits <p>Buccal minor salivary glands are continuously produced saliva ,which is important to lubricate the buccal mucosa.Buccal glands were collected from thirty adult male rabbits. Wall of cheek were removed from anesthetized rabbits at the place of&nbsp; buccal glands. Paraffin sections stained of the glands were stained by&nbsp; H and E stain, PAS reaction and alcian blue (pH 2.5) stain.&nbsp; &nbsp;Immunocytochemistry to stain actin myofilaments of myoepithelial cell were applied. It’s were mixed glands, but predominantly mucous in rabbit. The serous cells were represented by demilunes capping mucous tubules together with small number of serous acini. The myoepithelial cells (MECs) were seen around the mucous secretory units and around the intercalated ducts and striated ducts .The MECs were positively stained immunohistochemically for actin myofilaments. The cells secreotory mucous acini&nbsp; estimation of number and diamstter of ducts and thickest of connective tissue as well as number of acini mucous, serous acini and intercalated ducts and describe of the MECs.</p> Ghofran F. AL-Jubuori Wafaa H. AL-hashemi Akram . Y. Yasear Mohammed E. mansur Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-09-17 2019-09-17 59 1 154 161 A Generalization Concept of Measure by Using Binary Operations <p>In this paper, a generalization of the concept of measure is made using binary oprations. With this generalization, we extend the measure domain to . In the future, the properties of this new concept will be examined.</p> M-Hassan Hadadzadeh Naiery Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-09-18 2019-09-18 59 1 162 178 A Detailed Approach to Mechanical Design of Gas Pipeline Network System <p>The developed optimization models for flow throughput and pressure drop along with gas pipeline network in the thesis titled, “Flow Optimization in Natural Gas Pipeline” confirmed lack in an economy in the operation of the inline compressors. The developed optimization models employed Panhandle-A equation as base the base equation. The work is a case study of pipelines of some oil producing companies in Nigeria. Further observed, there were increased flow throughput and a reduction in the overall line pressure drop. The nominal line diameter was 36” (0.9144m). The lack in the economy due to the cost of the compressors and the power consumed at the optimal level of performance triggered this work. The research work confirmed that saving in cost and operation of the inline compressors could only be achievable if the operating upstream/downstream pressure is more than the range 81—63bar at nominal pipe diameter of 36” (0.9144m). At nominal pipe diameters of 43” (1.0922m) and 50” (1.27m) economy in the operation of gas pipeline assets and facilities was attainable at upstream/downstream pressures over 81—63bar. The nominal pipe thickness is limited to 0.05m to 0.10m. The new design concepts give flexibility in design, material selection, and installation of gas pipeline network system.</p> Shadrack Uzoma Mathew Tobinson A. Briggs Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-09-18 2019-09-18 59 1 179 202 Computer Simulation of Optimization Models for the Determination of Optimal Power Requirement for Liquids-Solute Mixer During Mixing Action <p>The study deal with the development of optimization models for the determination of the optimal power requirement for liquids mixers during mixing action. The impeller in question for mixing action is of the most straightforward geometrical configuration being cylindrical. The computational-algorithmic coding culminated in the determination of more or less accurate numerical values of the drive shaft optimal diameter and optimal values of the following parameters: mixing rod diameter, mixing rod length, clearance space between mixing rod end and the internal drum surface, the power required for mixing action. Analysis of the computational results confirmed that the clearance space of 0.05m and 0.15m produced the best optimal results for design and process variables for the determination of optimum power required for mixing action. The optimum power for mixing action increases as the clearance between the end of the mixing rod and the drum internal surface decreases. The mixing drum diameter is a composition of the clearance space, mixing rod diameter and the mixing rod length. The analytical value of the mixing drum diameter is all-inclusive at the clearance space of 0.05m and 0.15m.</p> Tobinson A. Briggs Shadrack Uzoma Mathew Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-09-18 2019-09-18 59 1 203 214 UWB Reflectarray Antenna for Chipless RFID Reader Gain Enhancement <p>The main limitation of chipless Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems is its short reading range which is generally less than &nbsp;as the amplitude of the back scattered tag signal is inversely proportional to the fourth root of the reading distance. In this paper, a design of reflectarray (RA) antenna consisting of unified unit cell. Five different unit cells structures centered at 6GHz for chipless RFID reader applications is introduced. The proposed RA has a narrow half power beam width (HPBW) and high gain which significantly enhance the reader sensitivity, maximize the reader reading range, reduce the multipath effects, and improve the tag localization. The proposed RA is realized on a rectangular single layer Rogers RT5880 lossy substrate of thickness&nbsp;and relative permittivity.&nbsp;radiating cells or elements with uniform element spacing are arranged on the rectangular substrate of dimensions and fed by a pyramidal horn antenna with gain of &nbsp;&nbsp;and HPBW equals 46.7°and 42.8° at E-plane and H-plane respectively. The simulation results showed that the proposed RA gives high gain up to which is greater than the feeder gain by&nbsp;and three times narrower HPBW of about .It operates over frequency range from&nbsp;to with&nbsp;fractional bandwidth (FBW) and has side lobe level,, which can't be achieved by the conventional antenna arrays.</p> Esraa EL-gamal Amr H. Hussein Mahmoud A. Attia Fathi E. Abd El-Samie Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2019-09-21 2019-09-21 59 1 215 229