American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal <div style="float: left; width: 315; text-align: center; margin-left: 5px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <a title="home page for American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (<strong>ASRJETS</strong>)</a>&nbsp;is <strong>multidisciplinary&nbsp;<strong>peer reviewed </strong>Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papersreview articles, short communications and technical reports in all main branches of science (All scientific disciplines) such as Social Sciences , Natural Sciences , Formal Sciences, and Applied science.&nbsp;(but not limited to):</strong>&nbsp;anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education,&nbsp; Economics, Medical Technology, Biology,&nbsp; Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources,&nbsp; Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International&nbsp;journal Guarantees that the editor decision based on the peer review results&nbsp;<strong>will not exceed 21 days</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong><a title="American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">ASRJETS</a></strong> journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process.&nbsp; For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/about">About the Journal</a>&nbsp;page.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> Global Society of Scientific Research and Researchers en-US American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2313-4410 <p>Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> Density Functional Theory Study on the Electrical Properties of α-CsPbX3 (X=I, Cl, Br) https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/5291 <p>All-inorganic perovskite solar cells have become more important in the commercialization of the photovoltaic devices. In this study the structural, electronic properties of inorganic metal halide cubic perovskites CsPbX<sub>3</sub> (X = I, Br, Cl) for perovskite solar cells are simulated using first-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT). The newly adjusted parameters make the calculations more accurate. These compounds are semiconductors with direct band gap energy. Results suggest that the α-CsPbX<sub>3</sub> (X=I, Cl, Br) have a wide bandgap adjustment range with potential application in solar cells and other optoelectronic energy devices. On the basis of the electronic properties, one can expect that the α-CsPbI<sub>3</sub> would be a better used to perovskite solar cell. α -CsPbCl<sub>3</sub> and α-CsPbBr<sub>3</sub> better suitable for others photovoltaic device.</p> Yuxuan Sun Haiming Zhang Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-03 2019-11-03 61 1 1 6 Fractional Radon Transform and its Convolution Theorem https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/5301 <p>Fractional Radon transform which is symbolized with the notation , it is different to the classical Radon transform. The shift property of fractional Radon transform is controlled by the fractional order Rotation of the input object at angle &nbsp;will rotate the fractional Radon transform at that angle&nbsp;thus, the fractional Radon transform is rotation invariant. The fractional Fourier transform, with respect to &nbsp;of the fractional Radon transform of an object is the central slice at angle &nbsp;of the -dimensional fractional Fourier transform of this object. In this paper we explain the mathematical formation of fractional Radon transform and established a convolution theorem for the fractional Radon transform.</p> Saleem Iqbal Hazrat Ali Farhana Sarwar Abdul Rehman Abdul Rehman Saboor Ahmed Kakar Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-03 2019-11-03 61 1 7 12 Correlating Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence and Detection of HIV Viral Loads at Chitipa District Hospital https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/5048 <p>HIV infection remains an epidemic threat around the world mostly prevalent in developing countries especially in sub- Sahara African region where many cultural practices and beliefs aggravate the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Poor Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence remains a big challenge leading to persistence detection of high HIV viral load results which deteriorate PLHIV health through lowering immunity [1]. This study aimed to determine the correlation of ART adherence with high detection of viral load levels among HIV patients receiving ART at Umoyo ART clinic (Chitipa DHO) in Chitipa district. A retrospective study design using PLHIV records, on HIV viral load results in viral register and ART adherence percentage (based on number of days missed to collect ARV drugs) using Electronic Medical Records (EMR) system between January, 2018 and December, 2018. There were 3890 patients registered alive on ART but 2835 patients had their viral load results in register.&nbsp; Therefore, 351 sample records were extracted using systematic sampling technique and analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. The findings showed that 37.7% (n=131) of HIV patients in the study had detectable viral load after a duration of over six months on ART and more experienced in 80/200 (42%) of patients with good adherence. However, poor ART adherence (˂95%) more prevalent in men, youths and HIV patients less than five years on ART. Pearson’s Chi square test indicated a statistical significant on correlation between age and ART adherence as well as ART adherence and HIV viral load results (p&lt;0.05). On the other hand, gender and duration on ART were not significant to ART adherence level. Eventually, it is recommended more ART clerks should be recruited so that any HIV individual initiated on ART should intensively counselled on poor ART adherence which may lead to development of HIV drug resistance strains that need expensive second and third line regimen ARV drugs.</p> Sekani C. Mkwala Felix Dambula Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 61 1 13 28 Management of Transparency in Outsourcing - A Case of ZCAS https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/5225 <p>This paper contributes to the on-going studies on outsourcing, as within the recent past, most of the outsourcing-related studies have focused on process control and the understanding of decision determinants of process control. With respect to outsourcing, this has been an attractive option for management, as its specific objectives impacts on the organisation’s performance and stakeholder value. However, management of transparency in outsourcing still requires more confirmation from research. Whenever researchers look at public and private organisations’ reports with regard to abuses, it bears negatively on economic impact.&nbsp; Much of the evidence that has been found is often based on process-related measures, with little discussion on management of intra-organisational relationship. These reports on outsourcing effects raise some questions that are fundamental for empirical research. Considering the impact of transparency in outsourcing on the organisation’s operational performance measures and perceived value, management’s focus has been on strategic perspective with the tactical role given little attention. This study has been done with a focus towards empirical examination of the impact of management’s role in ensuring transparency in outsourcing of goods and services on the organisations’ performance and value. The results are based on a sample of 299 respondents from ZCAS taken through a survey of the stakeholders for the outsourced services. The reference point of concern requiring transparency and management influence is from the publicly-available auditor’s report showing abuses and other vices. This is to help understand why and what similar management challenges &nbsp;&nbsp;facing departments operating in the public sector and how these challenges affect the institutions with regard to transparency in outsourcing. This research has made a number of contributions to both theory and practice. First, it has provided some insight to the empirical studies by examining the role of management in ensuring transparency in outsourcing and how transparency impacts on firms’ performance for the achievement of perceived value for stakeholders. Secondly, an empirical study on management relations in outsourcing for the stakeholder trust has been covered.</p> <p>Thirdly, this study is aimed at influencing management to take a leading role in ensuring transparency in outsourcing in order to obtain value. The papers conclusion is based&nbsp; on&nbsp; management assumptions on the inadequate &nbsp;communication with employees concerning rationale for outsourcing decisions.</p> Geoffrey Kapasa Mweshi Mr Kwesi Sakyi Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 61 1 29 44 Detection of Epileptic Seizure Based on Phase Space Reconstruction and Support Vector Machine https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/5312 <p>Electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important brain signal for disease diagnosis. Automated detection of epilepsy is still an open field for research. In this study, a simulation of epilepsy detection approach is achieved by a combination of feature extraction and classification algorithms. The features were extracted using phase space reconstruction, and classified by support vector machine.&nbsp; The performance evaluation was tested using dataset available by University of Bonn. The results of our experiments showed excellent classification accuracy (100%), sensitivity (100%) and specificity (99%).</p> Ayad Baziyad Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-05 2019-11-05 61 1 45 53 Histological Analysis of the Mandible in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus for Implant-Prosthetic Rehabilitation. A Pilot Case-Control Study https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/5294 <p>Diabetes mellitus has a major impact on the metabolic activity of a significant number of tissues. Its impact on the jaw bones cannot be neglected, especially if rehabilitation using prosthetic restorations supported on dental implants is intended. The aim of this study is to comparatively analyze vascularization, the degree of mineralization and the cellular component of the mandible in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients undergoing dental implant placement. For this study, eight patients assigned to two groups were selected. The study group included four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in whom dental implants were placed, and the control group comprised 4 patients without systemic pathology. The bone debris obtained after dental implant placement were collected and analyzed using hematoxylin-eosin and PAS–Alcian Blue staining. The results obtained indicated the presence of diabetic angiopathy in the mandible, a higher cellular density in the diabetic bone, and a lower degree of mineralization in the bone taken from patients of the study group. In conclusion, histological changes can be detected in the mandible of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to those without systemic disease, but their effect on bone healing cannot be quantified.</p> Daniela Popa Raluca Iulia Juncar Mihai Juncar Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-09 2019-11-09 61 1 54 60 Language Games and Acquisition of Speaking Skills among Students of Junior High School in Hohoe Municipality, Ghana https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/5216 <p>Speaking is one of the basic language skills that students should master in order to communicate effectively and interact with others. Speaking skills are necessary for the social as well as academic life of a person by becoming responsive as well as receptive to information thus forming a favorable impression of oneself. Internationally, there is a debate that several high school graduates cannot properly speak English language and even the bright learners who get high scores in written tests cannot express themselves verbally, despite English being the official language of instruction in these schools Language learning is a hard task and it requires extraordinary efforts to realize the desirable outcomes. Language games are techniques and procedures that may be used by instructors to improve the speaking skills. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to establish the effect of language games on acquisition of speaking skills among students of Junior High School in Hohoe Municipality in Ghana. Specifically, the study sought to establish the effect of role plays, problem-solving, puzzles, and board race games on acquisition of speaking skills among students of Junior High School in Hohoe Municipality in Ghana. The research was an empirical analysis and thus adopted an empirical research design and content analysis was used in the analysis of the qualitative data. The study revealed that language games significantly influence the acquisition of the speaking skills of the students. The study further found that using language games in teaching enhances the students’ achievement and results of speaking skills.</p> <p>Students enjoyed their lesson and got more motivation, interest, and confidence when learning is based on the use of language games. Hence, language games should be used as designed activities in teaching speaking skills. The study findings were generalized to students of Junior High School in Hohoe Municipality in Ghana, who like many other students in Ghana, require proficiency in speaking and writing skills, specifically in English which is used in Ghanain schools to teach subjects such as mathematics, science, social studies, art, and information and communication technology. Yet, English language is a second language to many Ghanaian students irrespective of their level in the education ladder. The outcomes of this study can be useful to Ghanian schools, researchers, scholars and the Government of Ghana. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Dr. James Odhiambo Oringo James Odhiambo Oringo Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-11 2019-11-11 61 1 61 74