American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) <div style="float: left; width: 315; text-align: center; margin-left: 5px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <a title="home page for American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (<strong>ASRJETS</strong>)</a>&nbsp;is <strong>multidisciplinary&nbsp;<strong>peer reviewed </strong>Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papersreview articles, short communications and technical reports in all main branches of science (All scientific disciplines) such as Social Sciences , Natural Sciences , Formal Sciences, and Applied science.&nbsp;(but not limited to):</strong>&nbsp;anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education,&nbsp; Economics, Medical Technology, Biology,&nbsp; Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources,&nbsp; Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International&nbsp;journal Guarantees that the editor decision based on the peer review results&nbsp;<strong>will not exceed 21 days</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong><a title="American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">ASRJETS</a></strong> journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process.&nbsp; For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/about">About the Journal</a>&nbsp;page.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> Global Society of Scientific Research and Researchers en-US American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2313-4410 <p>Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> The 2019 M 3.4 Yangon Earthquake in Ayeyarwady Delta Basin <p>An earthquake of M 3.4 occurred in Yangon with epicenter at Dalah, 6 km SSE of Yangon at 15:24:18 pm (UTC) on 12<sup>th</sup> November, 2019. Its epicenter was situated at 16.751°N, 96.18°E and at depth 10 km (6.2 miles) (USGS, NEIC). It was a slight earthquake and vibration was severe and people felt strong shaking in almost every townships of the Yangon Region but no severe damages. The event was preceded by a loud sound and heavy shaking last 8 seconds. Ground deformation by this event is slanting of the high-rise buildings in some townships, liquefaction features like water seepage from underground to the surface and slight cracks on the wall of the buildings. The causative fault for the earthquake is believed to be a reverse fault with strike-slip component of the NNW-SSE trending Yangon fault. This is due to basin inversion in Ayeyawady Delta Basin. On 13<sup>th</sup> January 2013 an earthquake with the same magnitude occurred at 10 km depth. It was a slight earthquake and vibration was felt in several townships of Yangon. In 17 December, 1927, an earthquake with magnitude 7.0 hit Yangon and caused certain amount of damages. It was felt15,000 from Kyangin to Dedaye along the western slope of Bago Yoma. In Yangon, the shock was much severer causing widespread alarm and damage to concrete buildings. Focal mechanism solution of the 1927 event was a strike-slip faulting (USGS). In&nbsp; July, 1930 Bago earthquake with M=7.3 effected Yangon, vibration spread caused damage to the buildings and 500 persons in Bago and 50 persons were killed in Yangon respectively. The last record of significant earthquakes that struck Yangon is on 30<sup>th</sup> September,1978 with M 5.7 at 10 km depth.</p> Hla Hla Aung Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-01-29 2020-01-29 64 1 1 8 Research on Application of Cognitive-Driven Human-Computer Interaction <p>Human-computer interaction is an important research content of intelligent manufacturing human factor engineering. Natural human-computer interaction conforms to the cognition of users' habits and can efficiently process inaccurate information interaction, thus improving user experience and reducing cognitive load. Through the analysis of the information interaction process, user interaction experience cognition and human-computer interaction principles in the human-computer interaction system, a cognitive-driven human-computer interaction information transmission model is established. Investigate the main interaction modes in the current human-computer interaction system, and discuss its application status, technical requirements and problems. This paper discusses the analysis and evaluation methods of interaction modes in human-computer system from three levels of subjective evaluation, physiological measurement and mathematical method evaluation, so as to promote the understanding of inaccurate information to achieve the effect of interaction self-adaptation and guide the design and optimization of human-computer interaction system. According to the development status of human-computer interaction in intelligent environment, the research hotspots, problems and development trends of human-computer interaction are put forward.</p> Qianwen Fu Jian Lv Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 64 1 9 27 Identification and Characterization of the Antibacterial Activity of Fungal Metabolites on Contaminants Responsible for Foodborne Diseases <p>The emergence of new diseases due to recurrent food poisoning nowadays in the face of excessive use of conventional antibiotics leads to the search for new bioactive molecules. Thus, the objective of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activity of fungal metabolites on contaminants responsible for food poisoning. To do this, Eight (08) fungal strains belonging to the genera <em>Aspergillus</em>, <em>Penicillium</em> and <em>Nigrospora</em> were used and antibacterial tests were performed on 4 bacterial strains (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ATCC 25923, <em>Shigella sp</em>, <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli</em> sp and <em>Salmonella</em> sp) using the agar cylinder method (antibiotic). The results showed that seven (07) fungal isolates have high antibacterial activity with inhibition diameters ranging from 18 to 29 mm on <em>Staphylococcus Aureus</em> ATCC 25923; <em>Shigella sp</em>; <em>Salmonella sp</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. Synergistic tests have shown that the combination of 4 to 5 fungal strains could increase bacterial inhibition of <em>Staphylococcus</em>, <em>Salmonella, Shigella</em> and <em>Escherichia coli </em>which appear resistant to the action of a single fungal strain.</p> Menonve M. Atindehou Yann Christie S. Adjovi Gilchrist M. G. Dagbozounkou Lucie Ayi Fanou Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-02-04 2020-02-04 64 1 28 42 Association of Dietary Practices and Lifestyle Modifications in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Pakistani Women <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) incidence is increasing day by day due to lifestyle changes and living standards that resulted in esophagitis, esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett’s esophagus and many other illness worldwide. Patients with GERD live with poor quality life and have low work capacity.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aims:&nbsp;</strong>Main aim of the study is to diagnose GERD in early stages for the reduction in mortality and morbidity at different age groups.</p> <p><strong>Methods:&nbsp;</strong>The pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore. A total of 230 female patients screened for GERD symptoms were included in this study. The collection of demographic data, dietary intake, lifestyle habits, physiology, and physical analysis were gathered during the 4 months. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Data analysis shows us that GERD is highly significant with age, occupation. Moreover, burping is highly significant in these patients. Fried fatty foods, spicy foods, fizzy drinks, garlic intake were also correlated to GERD symptoms. These subjects also suffer from more skin problems.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>From our results, we infer that GERD has a very strong bond with dietary and lifestyle patterns. If these parameters are kept under control, GERD patients will be less agonize from complications and minimize our morbidity and mortality.&nbsp;</p> Shahnai Basharat Fatima Binté Ahsan Mehak Zubair Azka Ahmad Chaughatta Ashna Mahmood Urva Mahmood Ahsan Sattar Sheikh Syed Amir Gillani Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 64 1 43 52 Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN): An Overview <p>The plethora of research and development efforts on Wireless Sensor Networks is an indication that the technology has emerged an active research area in recent times. In this paper, a review of this intelligent technology is undertaken. Its working mechanisms, merits, challenges, transmission technologies, simulating tools and applications are considered. The paper concludes with a clear conviction that a sound knowledge of the basics of this technology is a sine qua non to research and development of the technology.</p> Nnaemeka Chiemezie Onuekwusi Chinedu Reginald Okpara Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 64 1 53 63 Creative Chaos Theory Inductive Method for Viewing Information from an Applied Research <p>This research proposes a theory that arises from the common sphere of design and communication. It provides an inductive method to manage an initial workflow to determine and thoroughly describe the information surrounding a specific area of research. To seek answers, we find useful: How to start a research work? And how to define a study problem?; since these are questions that usually appear in the initial stage of research and put pressure on most occasions, causing doubts when interpreting an apparently disorganized information chaos that we do not understand. The Creative Chaos Theory describes the use of a qualitative algorithm, consisting of ten sequential stages, so that the researcher develops them in order to represent an abstract graphic scheme to orderly and hierarchically place the information. This theory allows to:&nbsp; explore the area of research from a proper perspective; describe, sort and rank information according to its relevance; propose the definition of a specific contextual framework; determine a study problem; and, later, develop its investigation until the writing of the research memory.</p> Rafael Pozo Puértolas Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 64 1 64 73 Color Performance and Cost Effectiveness Evaluation of Acid and Basic Dyed Silk Fabric <p>Silk, the natural protein fiber has a great importance in textile clothing, apparel and home decoration due to its definite lustrous appearance, peach like softness and draping qualities. Fine fibrillar structure and orientation of fiber molecules control its dyeing nature covering almost the entire spectrum of colors and hues. Silk is mainly used for value added premium quality products, so this research work is carried out to find out the economical dyestuff for silk along with required end customer performance. Shade strength measurement using data color is also another technical aspect of this research.</p> Shakil Mahmud S. M. Rashadur Rahaman Setu Md. Ariful Islam Nazmun Nahar Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 64 1 74 85 State Officials’ Targeted Killings as a Thorn in the International Cooperation Matrix <p>The focus of this paper is on target killings, particularly on state officials, aimed at neutralizing diplomats through death. Countries often cite various reasons for the killings, such as pursuing economic agenda and protecting nations against terrorism, among others. The paper delves into such justifications and the impacts of killing state officials with a focus on which such murders have on international relations. Besides, the paper focuses on historical discourses, especially those pertaining to the United States of America, which has, in the recent past, been widely cited as a gradually-shifting nation with more killings of other nations' agents. The paper builds on the various international accords that countries subscribe to, which subsequently guide international relations. Besides, the paper builds on the liberal and institutionalism theories of international relations, which are elemental components in understanding how diplomatic ties are supposed to be structured as well as the status quo. Through dissection and contextualization of the theories, this paper pinpoints the weak areas, which give nations the leeway to kill other nations' state officials and what would be different if all nations respected the international relations conventional codes. State officials’ targeted killings are a thorn in the international cooperation matrix.</p> Sapard Vincent-de Paul Mozes Tshimankinda N Kalala Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-02-12 2020-02-12 64 1 86 95 The Importance of Human Resource Management in the Hotel industry in Sierra Leone <p>Human Resources are the most valuable and unique assets of an organization.&nbsp; The successful management of an organization’s human resources is an exciting dynamic and challenging task, especially at a time when the world has become a global village and economies are in a state of flux The purpose of this research is to examine the roles and functions of human resource management in the hotel Industry.&nbsp; It also detailed with the methods used together with all relevant information about the importance of human resource management in the hotel sector and how the collected data was analyzed with the use of simple percentages tables to illustrate the research findings. Finally, are the summary, conclusion and references made by the researcher based on the findings.</p> Bisolu Sylvanus Hotchinson Betts Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 64 1 96 108 Growth and Mortality of Mouth Brooding Tilapiines of the Kafue Floodplain Fishery, Zambia <p>Growth and mortality of <em>Oreochromis andersonii</em>, <em>Oreochromis macrochir</em> and <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>of the Kafue Floodplain fishery were investigated between September, 2015 and November, 2015. This study was aimed at investigating the growth and mortality of mouth brooding tilapiines of the Kafue Floodplain fishery. Three stations that represent the major ecological habitats of the Kafue Floodplain fishery were selected. These were: Kafue Road Bridge (swamp), Namalyo (lagoon) and Kakuzu (riverine). Fish specimens were collected using gillnets that were set in the evening and hauled the next morning. Length measurements were taken from each fish specimen using a fish measuring board. Weight was measured using a kitchen balance to the nearest one gramme. One-way Analysis of Variance was performed on all quantitative data using Statistix 9.0 software. <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> showed the largest growth coefficient (k) of 0.22 while <em>Oreochromis macrochir</em> had the smallest growth coefficient of 0.10.&nbsp; <em>Oreochromis andersonii</em> had a growth coefficient of 0.11. Exploitation ratios in the Kafue Floodplain fishery were found to be below the optimum value (0.5) except for <em>Oreochromis macrochir</em> (0.7). <em>Oreochromis andersonii</em> had an exploitation ratio of 0.3 while <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> had an exploitation ratio of 0.4. This implies that the decrease in fish catches in the Kafue Floodplain fishery cannot be attributed to over-fishing but may be due to natural mortality.</p> Mauris C. Makeche Hangoma G. Mudenda Cyprian Katongo Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-02-18 2020-02-18 64 1 109 118 Inventory Management of Resources with Discounts in a Manufacturing Industry (Case Study of a Bottling Company) <p>This article is primarily concerned with the analysis of inventory control of items with price break in companies with particular reference to the Store, Purchasing and Production departments of the Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC). Inventory constitutes the most significant part of current assets of larger majority of Nigerian manufacturing industries. Inventory management has become highly developed to meet the rising challenges in most corporate entities and this is in response to the fact that inventory is an asset of distinct feature. Because of the relative largeness of inventories maintained by most firms, a considerable sum of an organization’s fund is being committed to them. The main objective of this study is the application of quantity discount model as an existing tool of optimization in inventory management. The answer to the fundamental question of how best an organization which handles inventory can be efficiently run is provided for in the analysis and findings of the study.</p> Oluleye A.E Oladokun V.O Anifanu S.O Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-02-18 2020-02-18 64 1 119 132