American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences <div style="float: left; width: 315; text-align: center; margin-left: 5px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <a title="home page for American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences</a>&nbsp;is <strong>multidisciplinary&nbsp;<strong>peer reviewed </strong>Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papersreview articles, short communications and technical reports in all main branches of science (All scientific disciplines) such as Social Sciences , Natural Sciences , Formal Sciences, and Applied science.&nbsp;(but not limited to):</strong>&nbsp;anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education,&nbsp; Economics, Medical Technology, Biology,&nbsp; Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources,&nbsp; Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International&nbsp;journal Guarantees that the editor decision based on the peer review results&nbsp;<strong>will not exceed 21 days</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process.&nbsp; For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/about">About the Journal</a>&nbsp;page.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences en-US American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2313-4410 <p>Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the <a title="Copyright_Notice" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">following terms.</a></p> Impacts of Selenium Foliar Biofortification on the Biochemical Composition and Grain Yield of Rice Cultivars <p>Selenium Se is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals linked to important biological functions in the body, where its deficiency has been associated with serious diseases. Rice is essential in feeding more than half of the world's population. Some studies show beneficial effects of Se in higher plants. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the effect of leaf Se doses on biofortification, agronomic characteristics and biochemical characteristics of the grains of two irrigated rice cultivars. The factors under study were five doses of Se (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 g ha<sup>-1</sup>) using as sodium selenate source (Na<sub>2</sub>SeO<sub>4</sub>), and two rice cultivars (IRGA-424 and IRGA-426). The leaf application of Na<sub>2</sub>SeO<sub>4</sub> allowed the biofortification of rice grains with Se, however, it affected its yield and some biochemical components. The cultivar IRGA-426 Se shows superior because it allows a higher concentration of Se in the grains, presents higher yield and better nutritional content. The cultivar IRGA-426 with the dose 60 g ha<sup>-1 </sup>Se was the viable combination to increase the content of Se in the grains, which may result in benefits for the health and food safety of the population.</p> Danilo Pereira Ramos Guillermo Arturo Herrera Chan Taynar Coelho de Oliveira Tavares Manoel Mota dos Santos Sergio Alves de Sousa Geovane Macedo Soares Danilo Alves Veloso Wanessa Rocha de Souza Antônio Carlos Francisco de Oliveira Natalia Martins Veloso Vitor Stefanello Fernandes Nivaldo Ribeiro Macena Jr Vanessa Silveira Jorge Rodrigo Ribeiro Fidelis Copyright (c) 2022 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2022-05-15 2022-05-15 88 1 1 14 A Case Study of Cavity Formation and its Rectification Works in Small Sized Tunnels with Excessive Water Inflow <p>Tunneling in Himalayan geological conditions can always present difficulties in underground excavations due to presence of active tectonic divisions, fault, thrust, complex geomorphology and ground water inflow. These factors can be pre-determined through various methods of geological investigations such as detailed Geological Survey, bore hole logging, ERT survey, Seismic survey, etc. and can be constructive in tunnel alignments design. As such investigations are rarely done in case of hydropower projects in Nepal, encounter of weak geological conditions and subsequent cavity formation is common. The particular case of penstock tunnel of MMKJA (14.3 MW) includes similar weak geological conditions, presence of clay bands, open joints and cavity zone formation due to high water ingress. This paper establishes a particular model and methodology for advancement in small sized cavity related tunnels with high water ingress. The model consists of Rib erections, forepolling, Shotcrete / Shotcrete backfill and channelization of water inflow. The model purposed in this paper can be helpful for advancement in similar conditions encountered elsewhere.</p> Asim Timalsina Nischal Dhakal Ujjan Paudel Copyright (c) 2022 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2022-05-15 2022-05-15 88 1 15 25 Fluid Dynamics Analysis and Fire Evacuation through Computer Simulation: A Case Study <p>Accidents caused by fires are harmful to both property and human life, causing most of the events to result in disasters. As an aid method for fire and panic protection and combat projects, fluid dynamics and building abandonment simulation software can be used, which can suggest re-dimensioning of accesses and active and passive protection systems, to mitigate structural damage and improve protection for users. In this context, the present research aimed to simulate the propagation of smoke and the abandonment of the Occupational Safety and Hygiene Laboratory (LSHT), using the PyroSim software, related to fluid dynamics analysis, and Pathfinder, related to evacuation dynamics. To this end, the research followed the following steps: literature review; 3D modeling of the LSHT, as well as the insertion of the materials present in the building, firing configurations, and then fire simulation through PyroSim; finally, the simulation of the evacuation of the occupants through the Pathfinder highest rate of thermal heat transfer through radiation. Regarding the results of computer program; and data analysis. The results show that during the 600s simulation, the smoke spread through all environments of the LSHT, reaching a temperature of 240.04ºC at the end of the simulation, with the evacuation simulator, it was verified that the individuals vacated the environments in only 36.5s. Regarding the results of the evacuation simulator, it was found that the individuals vacated the environments only 36.5s. Within the abandonment time, they have not reached levels that could compromise the survival of the occupants.</p> Cynthia Jordão de Oliveira Santos Victor de Sá Alencar e Moraes Bianca Vasconcelos Copyright (c) 2022 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2022-05-15 2022-05-15 88 1 26 41 Human Resource Management Process and Implementation of Electronic Teacher Appraisal and Development Programme in Public Primary Schools <p>Teachers are seen as change agents in the development of knowledge, skills and attitude, and are required to develop professionally throughout their life in a sustainable manner. The purpose of the study was to assess how human resource management process influenced implementation of e-TPAD programme; The research employed descriptive survey and correlational research design. The target population of 411 comprising of all 400 teachers in Kisasi sub-county, 11 education officers (3 CSOs, 3 County education staff, and 5 headquarter staff) who were closely involved in implementation of e-TPAD programme.&nbsp; A sample size of 211 comprising of 200 teachers selected using stratified random sampling and proportionate approach and 11 education officers identified using census survey.&nbsp; Questionnaire, interview guide and document analysis were the main tools employed to gather data, which were piloted to ensure they were reliable and valid. Collected data was analyzed by use of SPSS where both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used. Frequencies, Means and Standard Deviations presented the descriptive statistics while inferential statistical tests were presented using Pearson Product Moment Correlational Coefficient and regression analyses. Pearson Product Moment Correlational Coefficient was applied to test null hypothesis was tested using. The results indicated r=.376; r<sup>2</sup>=.142; B=.259; F(1,186)= 30.712; t=5.542, at p=0.000&lt;0.05, implying there was a statistical significant relationship between HRM process and implementation of e-TPAD programme at 95% confidence level and therefore the null hypothesis was rejected. Based on the findings it is therefore recommended that, for implementation to be fast tracked and succeed, proper human resource management planning, acquisition and well team management should be considered at the initial stages of the project.&nbsp;</p> Florence M. Mutunga Angeline S. Mulwa Dorothy N. Kyalo John O. Nyaegah Copyright (c) 2022 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 88 1 42 63 Anemic Syndrome Revealing Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Right Heart: About Clinical Case with Literature Review <p>Rhabdomyosarcoma is one of the most common primary cardiac tumors in children and adolescents alongside lymphomas. The diagnosis is based on a bundle of clinical, biological and histological&nbsp;arguments. Cardiac imaging, dominated by MRI, plays a key role in the tissue characterization of masses Therapeutic management is based on chemotherapy and the most complete surgical resection possible. We report the case of a rhabdomyosarcoma of the right atrium with pulmonary metastases in a 16-year-old girl revealed by a severe anemic syndrome with hemoptysis.</p> S. Bellouize N.Loudiyi A.Moujahid Y.Bekkali A.Benyass Copyright (c) 2022 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2022-05-22 2022-05-22 88 1 64 67 Efficient Microstrip Diplexer Employing a New Structure of Dual-Mode Bandpass Filter <p>In this paper, a highly efficient design for microstrip diplexer employing a new configuration of dual-mode squared shape bandpass filters is introduced. The proposed diplexer consists of two dual-mode bandpass filters (BPFs), a matching network, which is utilized to ensure that the two BPFs and the antenna port are properly matched resulting in good isolation between the transmitter (Tx) and the receiver (Rx) branches. For the proposed BPFs, the transmission zeros of each BPF are adjusted to the nearest passband center frequency, which makes them very selective to achieve high isolation between the Tx and Rx frequencies. This also provides a low-frequency space ratio and low insertion loss. The proposed diplexer improves the channel isolation, bandwidth with compact size of <em>.</em> Based on this structure, the proposed diplexer has good insertion losses of about &nbsp;and &nbsp;at transmit frequency &nbsp;and receive frequency , respectively. The achieved fractional bandwidth is &nbsp;at &nbsp;and &nbsp;at . The achieved simulated isolation levels are &nbsp;and &nbsp;for Tx and Rx frequencies, respectively. The proposed diplexer is useful for several wireless communication applications such as WLAN, GPS and global mobile system (GMS).</p> Ibrahim A. Alnagar Nessim M. Mahmoud Salah A. Khames Amr H. Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2022-05-22 2022-05-22 88 1 68 76 A New Approach for Examining a Given Number to be a Prime Number <p>Any whole number greater than 1 that is divisible only by 1 and itself, is defined as a&nbsp;<a href="">prime number.</a> Therefore a prime is a number that has only two factors. &nbsp;The chaotic nature of prime numbers in the set of integer numbers makes it important in today’s world, particularly in cryptosystems. If it was possible to determine the predictable nature of primes, the cryptosystems of the world could crash. There are a number of mathematical arguments backing the fact that it is not possible to predict the nature of prime numbers. So one can only formulate a tool for testing whether a given number is likely to be a prime number. Following the theme, here in this article, we also formulate a method to check whether a given number is a probable prime number or not. &nbsp;We also derive a connection between the Collatz conjecture and prime numbers.</p> Lourens Nicolaas Jacobus Engelbrecht Copyright (c) 2022 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2022-05-22 2022-05-22 88 1 77 90 A New Way of Looking at the Collatz Conjecture <p>The Collatz conjecture is named after a mathematician Lothar Collatz who introduced the conjecture in 1937. &nbsp;The Collatz conjecture which remains an unsolved problem in mathematics today, also known as the “3n + 1 conjecture”, explains about a sequence defined as follows: Start with any positive integer, the starting integer can be an even number or an odd number. Consider a number <em>n</em>, if the number <em>n</em> is even, divide it by 2. If the number <em>n</em> is odd, triple it and add one. Further, it states that regardless of the choice of <em>n</em>, after some iterations of the conjecture, the number no matter what value of a positive <em>n</em> is chosen, the sequence from the number chosen, projecting between lower and peak values will eventually attains the value of 1. Once reaching the value of 1 it will cycle through the values 1, 4, 2 indefinitely. The projections of numbers involved in this conjecture is sometimes referred to as “hailstone numbers” [1] because of the different projections of each number in multiple descents and ascents before reaching the number 1. I believe that the ideas here represent an interesting new approach towards understanding the Collatz conjecture’s sequences of numbers, especially the effect of the properties of even numbers divisible by 6, odd numbers divisible by 3, prime numbers and a set pattern in the projections in a certain arrangement. Following the theme, here in this article a defined pattern in the sequence of the projections which eluded mathematicians for years are discussed. This had also been computer tested and verified as true to 2<sup>68 </sup>in 2020<sub>.</sub></p> Lourens Nicolaas Jacobus Engelbrecht Copyright (c) 2022 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2022-05-22 2022-05-22 88 1 91 98