American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-07-09T06:21:10+00:00 Dr. Mohammad Nasar Open Journal Systems <div style="float: left; width: 315; text-align: center; margin-left: 5px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <a title="home page for American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (<strong>ASRJETS</strong>)</a>&nbsp;is <strong>multidisciplinary&nbsp;<strong>peer reviewed </strong>Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papersreview articles, short communications and technical reports in all main branches of science (All scientific disciplines) such as Social Sciences , Natural Sciences , Formal Sciences, and Applied science.&nbsp;(but not limited to):</strong>&nbsp;anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education,&nbsp; Economics, Medical Technology, Biology,&nbsp; Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources,&nbsp; Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International&nbsp;journal Guarantees that the editor decision based on the peer review results&nbsp;<strong>will not exceed 21 days</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong><a title="American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">ASRJETS</a></strong> journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process.&nbsp; For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/about">About the Journal</a>&nbsp;page.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> Reality of Urbanization and Urban Master Plan of Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR: Issues and Prospects 2020-06-17T08:47:02+00:00 Thanousorn Vongpraseuth <p>This study aims to identify the issues and prospects of Vientiane Urban Master Plan (VUMP) development processes under the urbanized conditions in the capital city of Lao PDR. The existing VUMP within the last decade has been brought into account in consideration both data collection and discussion processes. This study mainly focuses on identifying the characteristics and the implementation directions of the VUMP. In order to clarify these research questions, the implementation data from the Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MPWT), project investments data from the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI), and in-depth interview technique in the related sectors are utilized. From these data, the comparison analysis is applied crucially to learn the crossed dimensions between the existing VUMP and the implementation effectiveness.&nbsp;&nbsp; Regarding the results, the implementation processes and administrative sectors are the paralleled issues in driving of VUMP. Therefore, this study suggests the possible solutions with combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches in the implementations. The top-down approach deals with strategic development direction, defined by the master plans. It is suggested that in the framework of implementing the master plans, economic, environmental, financial, and norm of social instruments should be applied in combination with regulative devices, as the later solely could be ineffective. On the other hand, the bottom-up approach emphasized on community empowerment and inclusion of people at the grass-root level into development processes. In order to move forward the collective actions in implementation of the VUMP, it is crucial to encourage the common understanding, share directions, and collaborations with various sectors.</p> 2020-06-17T08:47:02+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Consistency, Stability and Convergence of the Viscous Garabedian and Korn (VGK) Method 2020-06-17T08:52:42+00:00 Dr. Salah.J.S. El-Ibrahim <p>The Viscous Garabedian and Korn (VGK) is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, used for the prediction of viscous flows around two dimensional aerofoil sections (mapped onto a circular grid) in a subsonic free stream. The code is written in “Fortran 77” and solves the full potential flow equations using a finite difference algorithm. The code has been recently published commercially with a data preparation routine to facilitate its use [1]. The present work investigates the code’s consistency, stability and convergence in the hope that it will shed light on the code’s performance and limitations under various flow conditions and code’s numerical parameters.</p> 2020-06-17T08:52:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Fibre Characteristics of Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf. Wood as Indices of its Suitability for Papermaking 2020-06-17T09:02:43+00:00 Josiah TB Riki Oluwadare Abiodun Oluwafemi <p>The fibre characteristics of Delonix regia, a fast and deciduous tropical tree with form like leaves that is considered one of the most beautiful trees in the world was evaluated to assess its potential for pulp and paper making. Three trees of <em>D. regia</em> were used for the study, they were obtained at different locations within University of Ibadan main campus, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Samples were collected at base (10%), middle (50%) and top (90%) portion of the merchantable height. At each sampling height, strips of 2.5cm were removed from the centre of the discs and divided into 3 zones namely: corewood, middlewood and outerwood based on the relative distance from the pith. Slivers were obtained from each of the zones and macerated in equal volume of glacial aceticacid and 30% hydrogen peroxide at 80oC in an oven. Data were subjected to statistical analysis of 3×3×3 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design (CRD) and Mean±SEM. However, a follow-up test was carried out using the least significant difference test (LSD) at 5% level of probability. A total of twenty whole fibres were measured in swollen conditions with a calibrated eye piece microscope from each sampling zone for fibre characteristics evaluation viz: fibre length (FL), fibre diameter (FD), lumen width (LW), cell wall thickness (WT), runkel ratio (RR), Coefficient of rigidity (CR), Slenderness ratio (SR), Flexibility ratio (FR), F-factor (FF) and solid factor (SF). &nbsp;The results obtained show that <em>Delonix regia</em> has the following mean value: FL (1.34mm), FD (39.42µM), LW (26.83µM), WT (6.49µM), RR (0.55%), CR (16.95%), SR (36.03%), FR (68.45%), FF (236.33) and SL (1390408.51). Based on the derived value such as the Runkel ratio of 0.55 which is less than 1 compared favourably with other known species for pulp and paper making. The values indicate the suitability of the specie for pulp and paper production in a place where there is shortage of wood material for this purpose.</p> 2020-06-17T09:02:43+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Corn Seedlings Have Tolerance to Water Deficit 2020-06-18T06:44:00+00:00 Sabrina Reis de Miranda Luiz Felipe Soares AGuiar Susana Cristine Siebeneichler Ládila Lima Luz Bianca Reis de Miranda Rodrigo de Castro Tavares Maria Aparecida Alves Sugai Álida Filomena Andrade Thadeu Teixeira Júnior <p>The present work aimed to evaluate the germination and seedling growth of two corn cultivars under water deficit conditions induced with manitol solutions, associated with doses of humic substances. The experiment was carried out at the Seed Laboratory of the Federal University of Tocantins - UFT, in Gurupi, Tocantins. Seeds of two cultivars were used: M274 and UFT Cerrado; and the product based on humic substances: Humix. For each cultivar, the factorial experiment (5×3) was mounted in a completely randomized design, and the treatments were composed of five osmotic potentials, with three doses of Humix. Germination percentage, primary root and epicotyl length, seedling dry mass and absolute growth rate were evaluated. The results were submitted to the F test by analysis of variance with probability of 5%, and when the effect of the doses was significant, the data were submitted to regression analysis. It is concluded that the biostimulant Humix had no expressive effect on germination and that the reduction of osmotic potential does not affect germination itself, but affects seedling growth, as osmotic potential becomes more negative.</p> 2020-06-18T06:44:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Integration Between Lean Manufacturing and Other Quality Tools: A Scale Development 2020-06-18T06:55:40+00:00 Fabio Eberhardt Teixeiraa Ademar Galelli Cintia Paese Giacomello <p>In order to improve organization’s performance, both in quality and productivity, several quality programs were created and implemented, with recent highlight to Lean Manufacturing (LM). All these initiatives are based on the involvement of employees, managers and organizational procedures, and it is expected that there will be some interaction between them. This paper describes the development and validation of a multi-item scale, an instrument which measures how employees perceive the integration between a production system based on the principles of Lean Manufacturing with other quality tools already used in the companies. The method included analyzes related to apparent validity, content validity, total item correlations, factor analysis and reliability. A questionnaire submitted to 317 respondents from a population of 1,699 employees of a metal-mechanic company included a proposed scale of 10 items to evaluate the integration between LM and other quality tools. After the analysis of the data, two questions were excluded because they did not present relevant factor loadings and the other eight questions resulted in two factors (Structure of integration of SP with other tools and Results in integration between SP and other tools). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that these factors constituted a model with good fit.</p> 2020-06-18T06:55:40+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Anti-hemorrhagic Activity of Wild Custard Apple (Annona senegalensis) Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Spitting Cobra (Naja negricollis) Metalloprotease. 2020-06-26T22:32:15+00:00 David Christopher Bando Emmanuel Odiba Ogu Imbasire Nuhu Achinawa Daniel Suleiman Hannah Nuhu Tubasen Kefas Funu Polly Shingu Jesse Rebecca Ayodele Segun <p>The main feature of <em>Naja nigricollis</em> venom is its high proteolytic activity responsible for most of local and systemic effects observed during envenomation by this snake. In this present work we reported the purification and characteristics metalloprotease from <em>Naja nigricollis</em> venom by combination of two step chromatography; a gel filtration (sephadexG-75) and an ion – exchange(DEAE–sephadex –A-50). Ethanolic extraction of the leaf of <em>Annona senegalensis</em> was carried out. An hemorrhagic <em>Naja nigricollis</em> metalloprotease(NNMP) was partially purified from <em>Naja negricolis</em> venom using sephadex G-75 and DEAE-sephadex A-50 column chromatography. Purification of the hemmoraghic metalloprotease was about 11-fold with a total recovery of 5.8% from the crude <em>Naja negricollis</em> venom. Biochemical characterization of NNMP show a Km of 10.5M and V<sub>max</sub>&nbsp; of 45.5 unitsmg-1. The hemorrhagin show optimal stability at P<sup>H</sup> 5.5 acetate buffer and thermally stable at 40<sup>0</sup>C. NNMP has activation energy as 0.25kjmol-1 and it caused hemorrhage when injected intra-dermally in albino mice suggesting hemorrghic metalloprotease. NNMP hemorrhagic activities were highly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and the ethanolic leaf extract of <em>Annona senegalensis</em>.</p> 2020-06-26T22:32:14+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Comparison of Antioxidant and Anti-collagenase Activities Ethanol Extract of Black Soybeans with Daidzein Compounds 2020-06-26T22:41:08+00:00 Lubna Alqodri Ermi Girsang Ali Napiah Nasution Sahna Ferdinand Ginting <p>Aging is a natural process in human life; one of the triggers is free radicals. The use of antioxidants from natural ingredients is an effort to overcome premature aging and counteract the harmful effects caused by free radicals. Black soybean (Glycine soja), which easily obtained in Indonesia, contains a nutritional value that is very good for human health. The protein content is quite high (40.4 g / 100g) and rich in antioxidants. The results presented in this study revealed that black soybean extract (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Had a higher antioxidant activity of FRAP compared to Daidzein compounds, black soybean extract had antiaging activity through better collagenase inhibition compared to Daidzein compounds. The largest FRAP activity at 50 μg / mL black soybean extract concentration was 146.35 μM Fe (II) / μg) and Daidzein 50 μg / mL concentration was 96.93 (μM Fe (II) / μg). Anticolagenase activity based on the IC50 value of black soybean extract was 84.73 μg / mL, and Daidzein was 98.18 μg / mL. From the above results, it can conclude that ethanol extract of black soybeans has excellent potential as an antioxidant that is useful as inhibiting collagenase.</p> 2020-06-26T22:41:08+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Inhibition of Collagenase Enzyme Activity from Ethanol Extract of Pineapple (Ananas cosmus (L.) Merr) Core 2020-06-26T22:46:06+00:00 Ellys Tanur I Nyoman Ehrich Lister Edy Fachrial Ermi Girsang <p>Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) is one of aerobic respiration products in cells which cause aging. Pineapple core is able to protect skin healthy by reducing reactivity from ROS, inhibiting oxidation, absorbing UV light, suppressing enzyme activity (such as collagenase), reducing the formation of wrinkles on the skin and protecting the skin from aging. This study aimed to investigate antiaging effect of pineapple core by their antioxidant and anti-collagenase activity. Determination of Antioxidant activity was using FRAP Methods while Inhibition of Collagenase assay was using Collagenase Enzyme from <em>Clostridium histolyticum.</em> The result of this study was expressed by Mean ± SD and analysed by One-Way ANOVA test and followed by the Post Hoc Test with the Tukey HSD test while Inhibition of collagenase were followed to analyse by simultaneous analysis of linear regression then determined the value of Inhibition Concentration 50 (IC<sub>50</sub>). At the highest concentration (50 µg/ml) from each sample were shown highest FRAP activity were 149.92±0.75 µg Fe<sup>2+</sup> for ethanol extract of pineapple core and 255.05±1.04 µg Fe<sup>2+</sup> for luteolin. Same as FRAP Activity, Inhibition of Collagenase assay at the highest concentration (250 µg/ml) from each sample were shown highest percent of collagenase inhibition were 64.62 ± 0.73% for ethanol extract of pineapple core and 81.22 ± 1.00%for luteolin while IC<sub>50</sub> value of collagenase inhibition activity are shown that ethanol extract of pineapple core has moderate inhibition activity. Whether FRAP activity or Inhibition of Collagenase activity aren’t potent as luteolin compound as comparison.</p> 2020-06-26T22:46:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Scavenge ABTS and Inhibition of Elastase Enzyme Activity from Ethanol Extract of Pineapple (Annas cosmusus (L.) Merr) Core 2020-06-26T22:52:38+00:00 Lenny Wijaya I Nyoman Ehrich Lister Edy Fachrial Ermi Girsang <p>The exact cause of aging is still unknown, there are some theories which has been directed. Excess ROS (Reactive oxygen species) or UV radiation can precipitate activation of elastase which degrades elastin. This study was aimed to investigate anti-elastase and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract from pineapple core. Determination of Antioxidant activity was using ABTS Methods while Inhibition of Elastase assay was using Elastase Enzyme from porcine pancreases<em>.</em> The result of this study was express by Mean ± SD and analysed by One-Way ANOVA test and followed by the Post Hoc Test with the Tukey HSD test, while IC<sub>50</sub> was determined by simultaneous analysis of linear regression. At the highest concentration (50 ug/ml), The scavenge activity of ABTS’ were 36.13 ± 2.82 % for ethanol extract of pineapple core and 93.91 ± 3.25 % <sub>&nbsp;</sub>for luteolin compound. Same as Scavenge ABTS Activity, at the highest concentration (66.67 ug/ml), the elastase inhibition activities were 78.73 ±3.08 % for ethanol extract of pineapple core and 86.30 ± 1.78 % for luteolin compound. The result of Post Hoc test for ABTS activity and inhbition of elastase was shown significant differences (P value &lt; 0.05) of percentage activity at various concentration. Based on IC<sub>50</sub> value of Ethanol extract from pineapple core that antioxidant activity (IC<sub>50</sub>: 72.73±4.31) was strong while inhibition of elastase enzyme (IC50:16.79±1.62) was very strong. Antioxidant and antielastase activity of ethanol extract from pineapple core aren’t potent as luteolin compound.</p> 2020-06-26T22:52:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Distributed Anonymity Based on Blockchain in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network by Block Size Calibrating 2020-06-26T23:03:57+00:00 Farid Rezazadeh Mehdi Agha Sarram Kiarash Mizanian Seyed Akbar Mostafavi <p>The network connectivity problem is one of the critical challenges of an anonymous server implementation in the VANET. The objective and main contribution of this paper are to assure the anonymity in VANET environments. In the proposed blockchain method, before packaging transactions into blocks, anonymity risk reduced through techniques such as k-anonymity, graph processing, dummy node, and silence period. This paper addresses the challenges of anonymous servers, such as update challenges and single point of failure, by exploiting append-only, distributed, and anonymity features. Although mounting the blockchain process with asymmetric cryptography solves the connectivity challenge, start-up delay and network overhead are severe. The significant feature of the proposed method solves this delay challenge by aggregating many transactions into a block and fixing constraint range of multicasting blocks. Also, aggregating transactions of various end-users into a block preserves the path anonymity. The asymmetric cryptography with ring public and private keys protects the identity anonymity as well as unlinkability. The robust anonymity mechanism existence and the traceability of all transactions constitute the main advantages of the proposed method. The simulation is running by the python to evaluate blockchain performance in VANET with connectivity failure and rapidly changing topology. The results indicate the stabilization of the proposed method in the VANET environment.</p> 2020-06-26T23:03:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Pregnancy Outcomes in HIV-Infected Women: Our Experience at a Tertiary Health-Care Center, Ahmedabad, Western India 2020-07-01T20:20:47+00:00 Dr. Babulal Patel MD Dr. Adwait B. Patel MBBS Dr. Akash J. Patel MBBS Dr. Parul T. Shah MD Dr. Manish B. Patel MD <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>HIV prevalence has been increasing among pregnant women in many regions within the country. Illiteracy, early marriage, violence and sexual abuse against women are the major socioeconomic reasons for their vulnerability to HIV infection. Estimating the HIV seroprevalence in a low risk population such as pregnant women provide essential information for monitoring trend of HIV in general population and assist in prevention from mother to child transmission.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong></p> <p>This study is a retrospective computer based data analysis, conducted at Sheth V.S. General and Sheth C.M. Hospital, Smt. N.H.L Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad, a tertiary health care center in Gujarat, India between January 2012 to December 2019. This study includes 68330 pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic or directly admitted in labor room in emergency. Blood sample collected after pretest counselling and informed consent, tested for HIV antibodies as per NACO guidelines. HIV sero-positive mothers and babies were managed at ART center of our institute according to latest guidelines of the same.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>Out of 68330 pregnant women, 166 found to be HIV-positive with seroprevalence rate of 0.24%. Majority of seropositive women (49.4%) were in the age group of 25-30 Years. Out of 150 live births, 3 babies were found to be HIV sero-positive result at 18 months and were managed with ART according to latest NACO guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong></p> <p>Mother to child transmission of HIV infection during pregnancy, delivery or breast feeding is responsible for more than 90% of pediatrics AIDS. Proper antenatal screening, interventions and preventive strategies during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding will bring down the mother to child transmission of HIV. A multidisplinary team approach to management involving an HIV physician, experienced obstetrician, and neonatologist are essential to optimize maternal and fetal outcome.</p> 2020-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Determination of Mechanical Properties of Compressible Soil in Littoral's Region of Cameroon: Depths Study of Soils Bordering the Wouri River in Douala. 2020-07-04T04:53:34+00:00 Michael Soup Teoua Ouagni François Ngapgue Simon Ngoh Koumi Alain Soup Tewa Kammogne Fabien Kenmogne <p>This work deals to the determination of the expansion ratio ( ) and compression index ( ) of soil samples taken at several points around the Wouri coast river of Cameroon. These parameters are the most important soil parameters, necessary to be known before each building project. The undisturbed soils samples are taken at nine different points labeled as P1, P2... P9 at the depths varying from 5m to 9.5 m and distanced around 10 to 15 meters. These studies are motivated by the fact that in this region, mechanical properties of soil have huge effects on buildings. By plotting the void ratio as a function of the logarithm of the pressure, these mechanical parameters are found and compared to that obtained from the inner land of Cameroon, Yaoundé town chosen as an example. As a result, this comparison has allowed us to classify the soil and give some practical advantages when carrying out civil engineering works such as buildings, bridges in coastal area.</p> 2020-07-04T04:53:34+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Children and Mothers' Preferences of Dentists’ Attire in Public Daycare Centers 2020-07-09T06:21:10+00:00 Rise Consolação Iuata Costa Rank Joana Estela Rezende Vilela Aline Peixoto Oliveira Santos Marjorie Freitas Ávila Iara Priscilla Inacio de Freitas Rafaela Maynart Batista Tatiana Soares Lima Ivan Iuata Rank Juliana Batista da Silva Rafaela Cristina da Silva Xavier Walmirton Bezerra Dalessandro Fábio Pegoraro Vinicius Marinho Wataro Nelson Ogawa <p>According to the environment and appearance of the professional in the dental office, the child may have different emotional reactions. New designs and styles of clothing are emerging in the market and offered to health professionals. This study aimed to verify the preference of mothers and children from 3 to 6 years of age concerning dental attire. Material and Method. The sample had 621 preschoolers of both genders, age randomly selected in public daycare centers in 6 cities, covering the Brazil states of Tocantins, Goiás, Pará, and Bahia. The study was conducted with a child playful projective test and an interview questionnaire for the mothers. The results among children's preferences of dental attire from daycare centers in different cities showed a statistically significant correlation at the level of 5% (P &lt; 0.0001). The mother’s preferences for attire showed a significant correlation at the level of 5 % (P = 0.0004). The children's preferences were for colorful attires, and their respective mothers prefer blue color. This selection has no cultural character nor for the family environment, as demonstrated in the various places the non-predominance of a single preference they mothers and their children. Preschool children were able to select their game options with this infant test.</p> 2020-07-08T18:31:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Alarming frequency and after effects of maternal anemia in Pakistan 2020-07-08T18:45:11+00:00 Anam Javed Nosheeba Rasheed Saira Rafique Maryam Iqbal <p>Anemia is caused due to usually iron based nutritional deficiency in blood. Its severity varies from mild to fatal. Recent reported data of Pakistan indicates that anemia cannot be ignored as it may affect fetus or maternal health or may cause death of any of them. The frequent symptoms are poor fetal growth, gastrointestinal bleeding, spontaneous abortion, low infant weight, less placental size and fetal or sometimes maternal death. Moreover, current data highlights that maternal anemia is common among females of province Sindh up to alarming level than in other provinces of Pakistan. As its diagnosis is usually delayed. People ignore the symptoms and still there is lack of awareness among masses. It should be controlled by government and concerned authorities by spreading general public awareness related to preventive measures, handling and cure of maternal anemia and to ensure the lives and health of both mother and developing fetus.</p> 2020-07-08T18:45:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Feet Microbial Infections 2020-07-08T18:58:02+00:00 Anam Javed Gull e Zahra Mehwish Amjad <p>Microbial foot disorders are quite common around the globe. People who usually don’t take care about their foot hygiene and overall health often suffer from serious foot ailments. Causes of these disorders may be poor cleanliness, diabetes miletus, improper foot ware and socks use.&nbsp; Among them, shoes and socks as remain moist due to sweat and dirt, are a potent source of microbial invasion which may be either of bacterial, fungal or viral origin, sometimes algal too. People of third world countries are more prone to such disorders because of lack of awareness. These issues can be controlled by introducing proper general mass awareness regarding foot care and hygiene and by spreading information regarding foot ulcers and wounds handling to medical staff and common people.</p> 2020-07-08T18:58:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS)