American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences <div style="float: left; width: 315; text-align: center; margin-left: 5px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <a title="home page for American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences</a>&nbsp;is <strong>multidisciplinary&nbsp;<strong>peer reviewed </strong>Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papersreview articles, short communications and technical reports in all main branches of science (All scientific disciplines) such as Social Sciences , Natural Sciences , Formal Sciences, and Applied science.&nbsp;(but not limited to):</strong>&nbsp;anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education,&nbsp; Economics, Medical Technology, Biology,&nbsp; Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources,&nbsp; Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International&nbsp;journal Guarantees that the editor decision based on the peer review results&nbsp;<strong>will not exceed 21 days</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process.&nbsp; For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/about">About the Journal</a>&nbsp;page.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> en-US <p>Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the <a title="Copyright_Notice" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">following terms.</a></p> (Prof. Mohamad L. A. Anabtawi) (Technical Support) Fri, 24 Feb 2023 09:25:33 +0000 OJS 60 Optimized PID, FOPID and PIDD2 for Controlling UAV Based on SSA <p>Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are widely used in recent years for different applications. Thus, UAV control attracted many researchers to suggest suitable controllers.&nbsp; The simplicity of PID controller makes it the first choice. In this paper, an offline tuning procedure based on Salp swarm algorithm (SSA) for the attitude control of UAV is proposed. The parameters of PID, Fractional order PID (FOPID), and PID Plus Second-order Derivative (PIDD<sup>2</sup>) have been tuned and their performance is compared in terms of rise time, maximum overshoot, settling time, and integral time absolute error.</p> Nagham M. Abdulridha, Prof. Dr. Ali Hussien Mary, Asst. Prof. Dr. Hisham H. Jasim Copyright (c) 2023 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences Sat, 18 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Acetone Adsorption to Co3O4?111?Surface: A Density Functional Theory (DFT) Study <p>Acetone, as one of VOCs, is not only polluting to the environment, but also harmful to humans. Therefore, detecting acetone is an important topic in the field of gas sensing. The carbonyl functional group determines the chemical properties of acetone. Aldehydes also contain carbonyl functional group. In this paper, we have calculated adsorption energy, adsorption distance and transfer charge by DFT. The results showed that the top of Co<sup>3+</sup> on Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> (111) surface has the best selectivity for sensing acetone. Our study contributes to the further study of the sensing properties of p-type metal oxide semiconductor sensors.</p> Yanyun Feng, Haiming Zhang, Peng Lu, Xiaomin Jia Copyright (c) 2023 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences Sat, 11 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Valuation of Startups Focused on Circular Economy: The Therpol Case <p>This study aims to valuate Therpol company which consists in a natural additive that makes it possible to transform rubber and plastic into renewable materials by using raw material of vegetable origin, the rubber tree. Therpol has local production capacity, or in other countries, in large scale. Up to the conclusion of this study, it was not known all Therpol application possibilities in the industry. The uncertainties contained in the valuation of the proposed scenarios are the greatest challenge of this work which presents three valuation methods of the company value, as discounted cash flow, multiples of variables and real options.&nbsp; Considering that the valuated company is of high intangible value, the analyses assess uncertain opportunities of future growth, this factor was not considered in the valuation of the company in this study. The strengthening of the brand Therpol is a fundamental factor for the company value increase. &nbsp;</p> Rodrigo Tetti Garcia, Claudio Alves dos Santos, Aline Basani, Rodolfo Leandro de Faria Olivo Copyright (c) 2023 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences Wed, 22 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Enset Participation in Value Chain on Smallholder Household Food Security and Income in Southwestern Ethiopia <p>Growing demand for enset means that rural smallholder farmers have excellent potential to respond on the supply side, particularly in Southern Ethiopia. Evidence is required to determine whether or not smallholder farmers participate in these new market opportunities and whether they gain anything from doing so. This study examines the effects of smallholder farmers' involvement in the Enset participation in value chain on food security and income (as determined by crop income and daily caloric intake in the Gedeo zone of Southern Ethiopia). The investigation analyzed cross-sectional data from 380 randomly chosen smallholder farmers. Impact evaluation employed the Endogenous Switching Regression (ESR) model, which takes selection bias into account. Results from the ESR demonstrate how market, institutional, socioeconomic, and demographic factors influence the decision to participate as well as the food security and income of farm households. Overall, Enset market involvement has a favorable and considerable effect on the food security and income of rural farmers, with a significant difference between groups. The improvement of household food security and income depends on policies that lower the transaction costs of accessing markets, promote trees through various media, work to build the capacity of rural institutions, encourage and support Enset associations, design appropriate support from various stakeholders, encourage market linkages among various market players, and give farmers the opportunity to enroll in basic education.</p> Toyiba Shafi, Jema Haji , Lemma Zemedu, Abule Mehare Copyright (c) 2023 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences Sun, 26 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 COVID-19 Mortality Prediction: A Case Study for Istanbul <p>It is well known that it is very difficult to make predictions for the real number of deaths due to any pandemic by using SIR and similar models since the predicted solutions systematically can deviate from real data. On the other hand, death data in the long and effective pandemic period cannot reflect the real case. In order to get more correct solutions and obtain realistic predictions, the parameters of these equations must be determined more precisely. In this study, by using real data depending on all deaths in Istanbul as a case study for 2020-2022 we determined the values of the parameters of the SEIR model and obtained the solution of SEIR equations. Firstly, we show that our numerical solution has a good fit with real data of the deaths due to COVID-19 for 2020 first and second peaks and 2021 first peak. Based on this confirmation, we predicted possible the number of deaths for the 2021 second peak. Furthermore, we see that our results show the number of deaths due to COVID-19 in Istanbul. Our method strongly provides that the model can lead to correct results if the parameters of SEIR models are determined by using excess mortality approximation. Now, we extend the study to predict the number of deaths due to the pandemic effects in 2022-2023. We show that our prediction is still compatible with the number of deaths for each wave. Finally, we predict the number of deaths for the future wave of 2022-2023 and we calculate the number of infected people in Istanbul for herd immunity.</p> Erkan Yilmaz, Ekrem Aydiner, Özgur Ökcu Copyright (c) 2023 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences Fri, 03 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of the Opportunities and Challenges of Construction and Demolition Waste Management Methods Using PESTEL Analytical Tool <p>The aim of this study is to analyse the construction and demolition waste (C&amp;DW) management strategies using a management analytical tool. The literature study was carried out to identify the various C&amp;DW techniques. This was followed by the administration of a questionnaire survey completed based on a five-point Likert scale and the results were assessed and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 26 software. The outcome demonstrated that the stakeholders in the construction industry are more concerned about the final cost of the project, quality of work and completion time than the management of C&amp;DW. The use of site waste management plan, legislation on implementation of waste sorting, and development of a waste stream market were identified as the most effective waste management strategies which should be adopted by the construction stakeholders. The PESTEL (political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal) analysis was used to analyze the external risks to be considered in the management of the construction waste while the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis was used to identify the various strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threat that can arise in the management of construction waste.</p> Oluwasegun Emmanuel, Vsevolod Nikolaiev Copyright (c) 2023 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences Fri, 03 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000