American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) <div style="float: left; width: 315; text-align: center; margin-left: 5px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <a title="home page for American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (<strong>ASRJETS</strong>)</a>&nbsp;is <strong>multidisciplinary&nbsp;<strong>peer reviewed </strong>Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papersreview articles, short communications and technical reports in all main branches of science (All scientific disciplines) such as Social Sciences , Natural Sciences , Formal Sciences, and Applied science.&nbsp;(but not limited to):</strong>&nbsp;anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education,&nbsp; Economics, Medical Technology, Biology,&nbsp; Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources,&nbsp; Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International&nbsp;journal Guarantees that the editor decision based on the peer review results&nbsp;<strong>will not exceed 21 days</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong><a title="American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">ASRJETS</a></strong> journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process.&nbsp; For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/about">About the Journal</a>&nbsp;page.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> en-US <p>Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> (Dr. Mohammad Nasar) (Rabindra Corat Kayastha) Mon, 06 Jan 2020 21:07:35 +0000 OJS 60 Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus in Hemodialysis Patients Infected with Hepatitis C Virus in Mosul District / Iraq <p>Most problematic infection haemodialysis (HD) are at higher risk for acquiring Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections than the general population.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods</strong></p> <p>This study was carried out between January 2018 until July 2018, a total of (60) blood samples were collected from hemodialysis patients. The samples tested against anti-HCV, HBsAg anti-HBS and anti-HBC IgM, using ELISA technique and determination HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA viral load by Real time polymerase chain reaction.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Prevalence HCV RNA was 12(20%) out of 60 patients were RT-PCR positive for HCV RNA with viral load, up to 100.000, Copy/ml and 10(16.69%) out of 60 patients were RT-PCR positive for HBV DNA in both positive and negative HCV RNA patients group with average viral load more than 100.000 copy/ml., 3 Patients out of 12 (25%) HCV RNA, positive patients were also positive for HBV DNA, while 40 (66%) out of 60 patients were anti-HBSAg positive, while the positivity of anti-HBCoIgM was 5 (50%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The prevalence of co-infection hepatitis B and C was high in hemodialysis patients in Mosul district/Iraq</p> Ghusoon Saadoon Hasan Al-Taan, Mohammed Dawag Khalid Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Wed, 08 Jan 2020 07:53:17 +0000 BER Performance Enhancement of MIMO Systems Using Hybrid Detection Techniques Based on Sphere Decoding <p>MIMO system is used in new communication systems to improve the bit error rate (BER), capacity, and the co-channel interference. In this paper, new hybrid detection techniques based on a combination between the sphere decoder (SD) and linear/non-linear detection techniques such as zero forcing (ZF), minimum mean square error (MMSE), Vertical Bell Lab Layered Space Time (V-BLAST), and lattice reduction are introduced. These hybrid techniques are intended to improve the BER performance of MIMO system. The proposed techniques are mainly based on dividing the received signal matrix into two equal size halves. The first half of the received symbols is detected using the selected linear or non-linear detector and the second half is detected using SD as the first scenario. For the second scenario, the first half of the received symbols is detected using SD and the second half is detected using the selected linear or non-linear detector. Several simulations are carried out to verify the efficiency of the proposed techniques. The simulations results show that the proposed techniques provide better performance than the traditional ones.</p> Amr H. Hussein, Alaa M. Enany, Mahmoud M. Selim, Mohamed E. Nasr Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Thu, 09 Jan 2020 07:59:35 +0000 Camel Milk as Adjuvant to Treat Alloxan Diabetes: Effect of Heat Treatment on this Property <p>Diabetes is one of the most frequent and serious chronic diseases in humans all over the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on antidiabetic activity of camel milk on serum glucose and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar albino rats by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg BW once). Albino rats each weighing 180-230g were divided into 3 equal groups (n=4) as following: G1- normal rats fed on normal diet, G2 - diabetic rats fed on normal diet, and G3 - diabetic rats were fed with raw camel milk. Fasting blood glucose was measured lipid profile was assessed. Results: Our study showed a significant effect of raw camel milk on blood glucose and lipid profile parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats, there was a significant reduction in lipid profile of T. Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-C in (Diabetic+ Raw camel milk) comparing to (Diabetic+ Pasteurized camel milk) and Positive control group with values 121.4 mg/dl, 80.4 mg/dl, 17.9 mg/dl and 141.5 mg/dl, 90.7 mg/dl, 28.7 mg/dl and 181.6 mg/dl, 113.8 mg/dl, 48.9 mg/dl respectively. Diabetic+ Boiled camel milk group died at the end of experiment. Conclusion: Raw camel milk improved the glycemic and lipid profile in diabetic rats but not in Diabetic+ Boiled camel milk group. These findings indicate that boiling of raw camel milk may have reducing potential benefits in the treatment of diabetes. Future studies will be needed to establish its safety and mechanism of action.</p> Rawoof Khan, Ali Jumaan, Mohammed Hussien, Ahmed Talib, Rahmatallah Ghaznawi Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Thu, 09 Jan 2020 08:16:44 +0000 The Nexus Between Tourism and Renewable Energy Resources in the Island of Crete, Greece <p>Investigation of the relationship between renewable energies and tourism industry in the island of Crete, Greece is important for economic and environmental reasons. Renewable energies are abundant in this island while Crete is a popular and attractive tourist destination. Development of renewable energies has a positive impact on climate change mitigation while promotion of green tourism increases its sustainability and reduces its ecological footprint. Development of renewable energy systems as well as tourism industry in Crete has positive impacts on the regional economic growth. Various renewable energy technologies are currently mature, reliable and cost-effective and they can be used in various applications without any financial support. Existing renewable energy installations operating in Crete for heat and electricity generation including energy systems installed in hotels have been examined. Solar energy is the most widely used benign energy source in Cretan hotels. The possibility of developing energy tourism as a new alternative option for the local tourism industry has been discussed. The nexus between renewable energies and tourism industry in the island of Crete results in various economic, social and environmental benefits. Therefore its relationship should be increased in the future due to the resulted benefits.</p> John Vourdoubas Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Sat, 11 Jan 2020 07:27:48 +0000 Preventive Effect of Ophthalmic Lenses on Cataract, is it Real? <p>Knowing that the prevalence of crystalline cataracts&nbsp; after 40 years is relatively high and that exposure to UV rays is a factor for its appearance, since the lens is an absorber of these rays, it was intended with this pilot study to verify the relationship between the appearance of crystalline nuclear sclerosis and the time that patients take from the use of ophthalmic lenses, since they absorb most of these rays under normal conditions of use.</p> Henrique Nascimento, Ana da Costa Roque Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Wed, 15 Jan 2020 08:20:47 +0000 The Effects of Climate Change on the Existing Environmental Laws and the Impact on Natural Resources <p>Sustainable development is meeting the need of the present societal setting without jeopardizing the stability of the future generation through the exploitation of the current elements of survival such as natural resources and destruction of the ecosystem. Developed countries have been spotted to take advantage of both developing countries and underdeveloped countries because they own personnel and equipment that can be useful in the extraction of natural resources. Aspects of humanity understand the need for protecting the environment and natural resources through different environmental laws that aid in governing efficacy in human nature coexistence. Moreover, the efficacy of good governance across developing countries depends on the structure of the governing body and the economic resources available to withstand the population growth within the region. &nbsp;Also, developing countries are on the verge of declining control and management of efficient environment policies that align with the management of the current levels of climatic changes. Some of the concerns covered under environmental laws incorporate different types of pollution, the sustainability of resources such as forestry, minerals, and water, and certain principles and policies related to environmental concerns. Poverty encroachment in developing countries has been steered by the encroachment of land degradation, pollution, and other environmental crisis. In many regions across developing countries, there exists a pressure exerted on the exploitation of natural resources arising from the increased population and meeting the global demand of the ever-growing market. With the continued climatic changes across the world, developing countries are experiencing strains to maintain the ever rising heat on implementation of environmental laws and natural resources policies. The research discusses the effects of climatic changes on the existing environmental laws and impact on natural resource policies.</p> Sapard Vincent-de Paul Mozes Mulumba Ngandu Tshimankinda Kalala Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Fri, 17 Jan 2020 08:21:59 +0000 Biogas Production from the Degradation of Biodiesel Agroindustry Waste <p>Due to advances in environmental policies in Brazil and demand to reach knowledge and techniques of new ways for obtaining energy, to avoid future blackouts and rationing, the renewable energy market is on the rise, and biofuel is a very promising energy source. In the biodiesel agro-industries, there is a constant increase in the residues generation (glycerin, washing waters, press cake, and oil sludge) resulted from the fuel production process, so there is the need for residues management or treatment valuing biodiesel by-products. In this paper, it was evaluated the main types of waste generated at the Caetés Biodiesel Pilot Plant - BR and analyzed the biogas generation potential of this waste. In the laboratory, comparative analyses were carried out between different combinations and percentages of sludge (inoculum containing a high concentration of methanogenic microorganisms to accelerate biomass degradation process) and biodiesel by-products. It was investigated through tests of Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) biogas generation from samples and simulated the capacity of electric power generation. Based on these data and the calculation of energy efficiency, it can be suggested the use of biodigesters with residues generated in the plant to produce energy in the unit enabling a 20% reduction in power consumption.</p> Christiane Lyra Corrêa, Natally Fritz, Alessandra Firmo, José Fernando Jucá Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Fri, 17 Jan 2020 08:53:52 +0000 Arrhythmia Classification Algorithm Based on Multi-Feature and Multi-type Optimized SVM <p>The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal feature extraction and classification diagnosis algorithm is proposed to address the high incidence of heart disease and difficulty in self-detection. First, the collected ECG signals are preprocessed to remove the noise of the ECG signals. Next, wavelet packet decomposition is used to perform a four-layer transformation on the denoised ECG signal and the 16 obtained wavelet packet coefficients analyzed statistically. Next, the slope threshold method is used to extract the R-peak of the denoised ECG signal. The RR interval can be calculated according to the extracted R peak. The extracted statistical features and time domain RR interval features are combined into a multi-domain feature space. Finally, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and grid search (GS) algorithms are applied to optimize the support vector machine (SVM). The optimized SVM is utilized to classify the extracted multi-domain features. Classification results show the proposed algorithm can classify six types of ECG beats accurately. The classification efficiency achieved by PSO, GA, and GS are 97.78%, 98.33%, and 98.89%, respectively.</p> Hongqiang Li, Xiaoqing Wei, Shasha Zuo, Qianzhi Dou, Mingjun Ding, Lu Cao, Zheng Gong, Runjie Wang, Xuyi Chen, Binhua Wang, Joan Daniel Prades, Feifan Wu Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Wed, 22 Jan 2020 07:41:59 +0000 Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Enzyme Inhibition Activity of Lime Peel and Seed Ethanol Extract <p>UV Light exposure and Oxidative stress can cause the accumulation of free radicals and increase melanogenesis. The various herbal plant enriches Indonesia. One of them is lime that content various phytochemicals. This study was aimed to explore antioxidants property and tyrosinase enzyme inhibition activity of lime peel and lime seed. This study used ethanol extract from lime peel and seed. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ABTS reduction assay, while tyrosinase enzyme inhibitor activity by tyrosinase enzyme from fungi. The results of this study showed that the IC50 Value of Lime Seed (14.09 ± 0.88 µg/mL) was lower than lime peel (20.16 ± 0.23 µg/mL). Meanwhile, the IC50 value against tyrosine enzyme of Lime Peel (34.23 ± 0.93 µg/mL) was lower than lime seed (67.88 ± 3.73µg/mL). Hence lime peels potentially become a tyrosinase enzyme inhibitor agent while the lime seed has better antioxidant potential than the peel.</p> Leo Mirah, Ermi Girsang, Ali Napiah Nasution, I Nyoman Ehrich Lister Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Wed, 22 Jan 2020 09:59:11 +0000 Analysis of Protein Content, Spectrophotometry FT-IR, and Antibacterial Effects of Earthworm (Eudriluseugenia) <p>This research to compare effectiveness of coelomic fluid and extract ethanol of <em>Eudriluseugeniae</em> against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> as antibacterial. Suggest that protein on <em>Eudriluseugeniae</em> have antibacterial activity.Experimental laboratory with analytical statistic Mann- Whitney with following step of research: (1) Determination of earthworm, (2) Cold shock methods modification to get coelomic fluid, (3) Maceration ethanol 70 % of <em>Eudriluseugeniae.</em>(4) Determination protein content with Kjehdahl methods, (5) Identification absorbance infrared by spectrophotometry FT-IR .(7) Antibacterial assay using disc diffusion against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>.The result of this study showed that protein content of coelomic fluid (1.875 %)were higher than ethanol extract (0.437%) of <em>Eudrilus eugenia</em>. Coelomic liquid had no functional group in the chemical compound. However, the ethanol extract showed some functional group includes aliphatic, ethanol, and Amide A group. The antibacterial effect against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> from ethanol extract or coelomic liquid of <em>Eudriluseugenia</em><em>e</em> were similar at equal concentration. It due to p value of analysis was lower than 0.05.Coelomic liquid and ethanol extract had similar antibacterial effects against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>.</p> Suandy, Ermi Girsang, Ali Napiah Nasution, I Nyoman Ehrich Lister Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Wed, 22 Jan 2020 10:27:09 +0000 Determinants of Infrastructure Project Delays and Cost Escalations: the Cases of Federal Road and Railway Construction Projects in Ethiopia <p>Construction project objective achievement measured by whether, or not the projects are completed on time and budget. Most of the road and rail construction projects in Ethiopia exposed to extreme time and cost overruns. It becomes difficult to complete projects on time and budget. To fill gaps, the study was conducted causes of infrastructure project delay and cost escalation in the federal road and rail construction projects. Data gathered in purposive sampling technique from the targeted population of the client, contractor, and consultant of managers and engineers who have experienced delay and cost overruns. In the total of 73 questionnaires were collected, and 18 senior engineers interviewed in mixed research approaches and analyzed data using applied and descriptive statistics by aided in SPSS and RII . To investigate the real extent of time and cost overruns of the road and railway construction projects, secondary data collected from 25 roads and 3 railways projects construction completed from 2014 to May, 2018 and analyzed by using Microsoft Office Excel 2007. From the investigation, it found that 88% of the road and 100% railway construction projects suffered time performance, and 80% of the road and 100% of the railway construction projects also cost overruns from initially expected. Project delay and cost overrun can be minimized only when their causes are indentified. To analyze&nbsp; the major causes of time and cost overrun of the &nbsp;road and railway construction projects, the study classified&nbsp; determinants into time overrun (technical, overconfidence bias and strategic misrepresentation), and cost overrun. The top-ranked five delay factors found incomplete to study before project approval, poor project management &amp; coordination, the right of way issues, inaccurate forecasting of schedule, psychological biases, and political interests. Inflation of material cost, the scope change with the change order, incomplete study project approval, poor bill of quantity &amp; design, and poor project performance monitoring among top ranked cost overrun determinants. The correlation between time overrun variables/or determinants, and time &amp; cost overrun determinants directly affecting the other time and cost overrun variables in the same project.</p> <p>The research findings suggested that the project stakeholder makes sure that the road and rail projects carrying out on time and within estimated budget. Otherwise, it has found time and cost overruns, this damages client and contractor reputation, loss of profit and investment opportunities, inability to deliver the value of money and inefficient use of time, disposing of business activities and create the burden for taxpayers. The study also reminds for decision-makers and practitioners to address the road and railway construction project delay and cost overrun by rewarding well-performed contractors, improve the capacity of staff, make selective public-private-partnership, enhance performance monitoring and information sharing, and use innovative project cost and time forecasting techniques and tools.</p> Yenealem Fentahun Kassa Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Wed, 22 Jan 2020 11:03:56 +0000