American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) <div style="float: left; width: 315; text-align: center; margin-left: 5px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <a title="home page for American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (<strong>ASRJETS</strong>)</a>&nbsp;is <strong>multidisciplinary&nbsp;<strong>peer reviewed </strong>Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papersreview articles, short communications and technical reports in all main branches of science (All scientific disciplines) such as Social Sciences , Natural Sciences , Formal Sciences, and Applied science.&nbsp;(but not limited to):</strong>&nbsp;anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education,&nbsp; Economics, Medical Technology, Biology,&nbsp; Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources,&nbsp; Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International&nbsp;journal Guarantees that the editor decision based on the peer review results&nbsp;<strong>will not exceed 21 days</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong><a title="American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">ASRJETS</a></strong> journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process.&nbsp; For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/about">About the Journal</a>&nbsp;page.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> en-US <p>Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> (Dr. Mohamad Nasar) (Inquiries:) Thu, 10 Jun 2021 09:04:53 +0000 OJS 60 Reducing Over-consumption of Acid during Skim Latex Coagulation in Cameroon’s Rubber Processing Factories <p>Latex processing factories in Cameroon transform field latex to latex concentrate and skim latex is generated alongside, being poor in dry rubber content and high ammonia content, it is mostly coagulated as skim rubber, for use in rubber products. These factories face enormous problems with the overconsumption of acid during skim coagulation, which results to extra expenses and high acidic waste water production problems. Therefore the is a need to reduce the overconsumption of acid during skim coagulation. In order to solve this problem we started by identifying all possible causes of acid overconsumption at the factory using the ISHIKAWA diagram. We further hierarchized these causes using a Pareto diagram and sought out 3 main causes of great impact to be addressed which are: the low performance of the deammoniation process; poor practice of coagulation; negligence. We proposed solutions by optimising the deammoniation process at the tower i.e. controlling its skim and air flow rate inside the deammoniation tower to optimal values. Also we determine the optimal volume of acid needed for effective coagulation which when applied reduces acid consumption. Lastly we optimized by proposing a new mode of operations for the coagulation process. By implementing this new approach, we recorded an estimated total acid reduction of 28,924 L/month (347088L/ year) and this will enable the company to save money about 770,469 FCFA/month (21,245,639 FCFA/year). This approach can be adapted in any other rubber processing unit and will reduce acid overconsumption during skim latex coagulation.</p> Louden Motina , Ambe Rex Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Sun, 13 Jun 2021 17:08:18 +0000 Is the Study of Social Culture Making a Difference in the Implementation of Business Strategy in International Organizations? - A Bibliometric Analysis <p>The search for results and its interface with culture, with the adaptation to the transition of customs and technological innovations generate impacts on social factors. The diversity of cultures in work occupations and their association with group culture is a gap to be observed. As a result of this trend, it was observed the need to understand the studies carried out within a chronological approach, which brought the need to perform a bibliometric analysis. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the scenario of research carried out to understand the transition of culture within the strategic decision-making processes in multinational companies and its deployment through the projects in the different layers of these organizations due to the changes brought by technological advances as in special connectivity in the last 30 years referenced in the creation of the World Wide Web. For this purpose, bibliometrics was made with the keywords “Cultur*” and Boolean intersections “AND” for “business strateg*” OR “project portfolio management” OR "multinational compan*" consolidated into two different research bases. Through tools of analysis by specific statistical software can be highlighted as the main research outputs: the search for the subject and the importance of the theme, the focus on obtaining financial return based on performance; the base concentration on research with more than 20 years of publication linked to the companies' difficulty in the interaction of Culture with the transition of generations associated with customs and new technology; the concentration of research in know-how countries linked to the top-down management approach; and the factors of interaction between the internal culture of the organization and the local cultures of the groups in the countries of operation of these companies with the association of a top-down management communication line.</p> Edson Souza de Alencar, Milton Vieira Junior, Maria Júlia Xavier Belém Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Sun, 13 Jun 2021 17:26:56 +0000 Investigating the Impact of Non-Hydrodynamically Connected Descaling Parameters in the Removal of Different Stages of Paraffin Deposits Using Multiple Nozzles in Petroleum Production Tubing <p>Despite the continued research efforts in understanding the erosional behaviors of multiple flat fan nozzles in the removal of different types of scale deposits from petroleum production tubing. The non-hydrodynamically connected descaling parameters such as stand-off distance, nozzle arrangement and chamber pressure have not been duly considered up to date. This research utilizes 3-flat fan high-pressure nozzles at a high injection pressure of 10 MPa to remove paraffin deposits at different growth stages from petroleum production tubing to evaluate the effects of the descaling parameters on scale removal. A stand-off distance of 25 mm, 50 mm and 75 mm; nozzle arrangement in novel orientations (triangle, diagonal &amp; right-angle) involving 7-nozzles header and chamber pressures (in compression – 0.2 MPa and vacuum -8.0 x10-3 MPa) were utilized as the varying non-hydrodynamically connected parameters. Generally, the selection of both nozzle arrangement and chamber air concentration was found to be governed by the type and shape of the deposit in question while the scale removal capability was found to be reduced with an increase in stand-off distance due to poor jet contact. An average hollow shaped paraffin removal of 276 g, 259 g and 226 g were recorded at ambient condition across the respective stand-off distance of the three respective nozzles arrangements. While the introduction of 0.2 MPa compressed air significantly increased the respective removal of the early stage paraffin deposition to 342 g, 299 g and 277 g respectively. Also, more hollow shaped removal improvement of 366 g, 320 g and 288 g were achieved after suctioning the chamber by -0.008 MPa, while simultaneously pumping water at 10 MPa. The case of solid shaped paraffin signifying complete tubing blockage was not effective at ambient condition, with average paraffin removal of 99 g, 126 g and 112 g respectively. However, the introduction of compressed chamber air registered the best solid paraffin removal results of 235 g, 286 g and 256 g respectively. Whereas the suction operation recorded an average removal of 229 g, 270 g and 250 g of paraffin across the respective jet positions and nozzle configurations. This result provides a practical approach to the removal of organic scales deposits at varying descaling conditions of injection pressure, standoff distance and nozzle arrangement.</p> Kabir. H. Yar’Adua, Abubakar J. Abbas, Salihu M. Suleiman, Idoko. J. John, Abdullahi A. Ahmadu, Aisha Kabir Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Sun, 13 Jun 2021 17:35:58 +0000 The (non) Implementation of the PNE and its Impact on Economic, Social and Technological Innovation Development in Brazil <p>The present study aimed to analyze the 20 goals of the PNE (acronym for Brazilian Plan for Education in Portuguese) in force in Brazil until 2024. To date, only one goal has been met, number 13, that refers to the certification of higher education academics. The failure to meet these goals - especially those related education funding - means to put at risk the PNE and the actions aimed at Brazilian education for the period. The negative impact is to be perceived in medium and long term, hindering the progress of economic and social development and technological innovation.</p> Cleverson Molinari Mello, Pedro Leão da Costa Neto Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Fri, 18 Jun 2021 18:23:44 +0000 Practical and Symbolic Aspects of Olive Oil Donations in Asia Minor during the Hellenistic period and the Principate <p>This paper concludes some major aspects regarding olive oil donations in Asia Minor during the Hellenistic period and the Principate. These benefactions were part of the larger phenomenon called Euergetism, that took place in all Greek cities, starting with the fifth Century BC, in which rich and poor, magistrates and ordinary people were exchanging gifts and honors for the well-being of the City and for themselves. Through the study of oil donations there can be highlighted the relations between donor and donated, the importance of the value of gifts in receiving honors, the social and economic characteristics of the city during the studied period, the practical and symbolic aspects that derive from donating olive oil in antic Asia Minor.</p> Alina Andrieș Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Fri, 18 Jun 2021 18:35:21 +0000 The Human Heart: Deviating from the Golden Ratio and Diagnosing Disease <p>The golden ratio (golden section, golden mean, divine proportion) is an irrational number whose value is approximately Φ = 1.618. The golden ratio has imposed itself throughout history as a kind of principle of unison and harmony that is so subtly and fascinatingly repeated in nature, science, art, and even in the structure and function of the human body. What is typical for the golden ratio is that it places the larger segment in relation to the smaller segment, uniting them into a single whole, which again place it in the same relationship with its larger part. If we consider the cardiac cycle as one such whole, its “larger segment” would refer to the diastolic phase, while the “smaller segment” would refer to the systolic phase of one cardiac cycle. In this article, the mathematical processing of 100 ECG records included the measurement of intervals representing the systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, where the ratio of diastolic and systolic phases, and the ratio of one cardiac cycle and diastolic phase was obtained. The study has shown that people with normal ECG records have a ratio of the diastolic and systolic phases of the cardiac cycle, and the cardiac cycle and the diastolic phase, which are very close to the golden ratio. On the other hand, persons whose ECG records indicate certain pathological conditions in the heart muscle have ratios of diastolic and systolic phase, and of the total cardiac cycle and diastolic phase, which deviate to varying degrees from the value of the golden ratio. It has been shown that for a certain pathological condition there is a characteristic deviation of the diastole/systole and cardiac cycle/diastole ratio from the number Φ, which opens the possibility of applying this method as a potential diagnostic or screening method in rapid analysis of ECG records.</p> Merjema Ibranovic, Ago Omerbasic Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Management of Rare Case of Massive Bleeding from a Right-sided Colonic Diverticular Disease <h3>Bleeding related to diverticular disease occurs in 10 to 30% of patients suffering from diverticular disease. The source is more frequently in the right colon. Typically, the bleeding is massive, with 15% of the patients admitted in shock [1]. We report a case of 70 year old man presented to the emergency department with sudden rectal bleeding in need of transfusion, just after two days of non steroidal anti-inflammatory auto medication for joint pain. The patient treated with oral anticoagulation for coronary artery disease.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Laboratory findings revealed very low hemoglobin of 5,1 g/dl when the patient presented at hospital. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy was normal. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed contrast extravasation in the ascending colon from a solitary diverticulum&nbsp;.we didn’t have the ability to perform an artery embolization or an endoscopic treatment especially because the patient was shocked. So the patient was operated and a right hemicolectomy was performed. After the surgery he recovered quickly and no bleeding recurred.</h3> Et-Tayab ouazzani, Younes Hamdouni, Jean-Bapstiste Griot, Mathieu Martenot, Thomas Paumet Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Fri, 02 Jul 2021 16:33:52 +0000 A Numerical Assessment of Daylight Performance of Office Buildings in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Introducing Light Shelves to Enhance Daylighting Quality <p>Daylighting is one of the significant factors affecting the working environment in an office which is recognized as a vital source of energy savings. Occupants require proper daylight for desk jobs in their working spaces which largely depends on a set of internal and external aspects. This paper aims at analyzing the natural daylighting performance of the office buildings in Dhaka and providing a few design options concerning light shelves in order to enhance interior daylighting performance. A total of eleven commercial office buildings were selected in the survey based on a set of building parameters that has significant effects on daylighting. Among those selected buildings, one typical office building was further analyzed and simulated for a more detailed assessment of daylighting performance. Daylighting performance is assessed in terms of illuminance value concerning useful daylighting illuminance. The resultant data shows the inner office region lags in terms of illuminance value and is not very suitable for office works. Hence, light shelves were introduced as architectural design elements which were then simulated at different heights and angles to find out the optimum solution for daylighting enhancement which will save electrical lighting energy consumption.</p> Nafis Sadat, Nabilah Nargis Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Fri, 02 Jul 2021 16:45:13 +0000 Survey of Hypocalcaemia Frequency in District Lahore, Pakistan <p>Calcium is important for regulation of various physiological functions like bones, teeth, different types of muscular movements, blood pressure, body growth and maintenance. But continuous calcium deficiency may cause hypocalcaemia in which major cause is insufficient intake of calcium along with other pathological states, financial constraints and lack of general public awareness about the significance and physiological role of calcium. Statistical analysis on the basis of current survey indicates that females remain malnourished and suffer from hypocalcaemia more than males. That’s why; there is urgent need of organized efforts for general public awareness from government and private platforms. Moreover, future researchers should introduce better diagnosis techniques and economical dietary sources and treatments to reduce frequency of hypocalcaemia.</p> Anam Javed, Hafiz Imran Hashmi, Aiman Shahid, Sidra Mehmood , Saba Khurshid Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Wed, 07 Jul 2021 17:25:01 +0000 Self - care Practices and Complications Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Bamenda Health District, Northwest Region of Cameroon <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an emerging lifestyle disease and is now an important public health concern globally and a silent killer. Its coexistence with other medical conditions contributes to about 88% mortality. This study aimed at investing self-care practices and complications of type 2 diabetic among patients in Bamenda Health District. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 participants selected quarterly from three health facilities in Bamenda Health District. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0and was considered significant at P ≤ 0.05.The results showed that, of the 200 patients, 48% were male and 52% female and for both of them, 60%&nbsp; were aged above 50 years. Concerning dietary intake, 68% had no control on food intake and 54.5% ate more of energy yielding food.Majority of the patients (54%) do not indulge in physical activities.Only 12% of the diabetic patients washed and wiped their feet every day.Compliance to medication was 40.5%.It was observed that the most outstanding complications were high blood pressure (62%)and visual problems (60%). Self-carepractices (diet, physical activity, blood sugar testing, foot care, alcohol and medications) were significantly associated with complications (p&lt;0.05).Results revealed an overall poor approach to self-care among the patients, thus Type 2 diabetic patients in Bamenda health district still need more access to information on self-care.</p> Mary Chia- Garba, Marcelus U.Ajonina, Agbor Esther Etengeneng, MfonKidze Padeline Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Mon, 12 Jul 2021 07:34:35 +0000 Effects of Pulverized Compost Materials and Composting Durations on Early Growth of Savannah Mahogany Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss in a Semi-Arid Ecosystem of Nigeria <p>The study was carried out in the Nursery of the Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria, to assess the effects of pulverized compost materials (PCM) and composting durations on the early growth of <em>Khaya</em> <em>senegalensis</em> in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Leaves of <em>Azadirachta indica, Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em> and <em>Arachis hypogea</em> were collected within the premises of University of Maiduguri. The leaves were sundried and pulverized before buried for 30, 60, and 90 days at the depth of 45cm and grouped into (M1-M5). Viable seeds sown at 3cm depth. Eighteen polythene pots arranged randomly in three replications were used for the experiment. Data were taken four weeks after sowing on stem diameter, stem height and number of leaves on weekly basis for the period of eight weeks, while root length and biomass were determined at the end of the experiment. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Statistix (8.0) DMRT was applied for mean separation. The result obtained from the analysis of variance revealed that PCM<sub>5 </sub>(pulverized leaves of <em>G arborea, E camaldulensis</em> and <em>A hypogea</em>) at eight WAS produced the highest value (2.54mm) while PCM<sub>1</sub> (pulverized leaves of <em>A indica,</em> <em>G arborea, E camaldulensis</em> and <em>A Hypogea</em>) at five WAS had the least stem diameter value (0.88mm). T<sub>3 </sub>(90 days composting) had the highest stem value (2.14mm) which was significantly different (P=0.05) from T<sub>1 </sub>(30 days composting) and T<sub>2 </sub>(60 days composting). The result obtained for stem height showed that PCM<sub>5 </sub>(pulverized leaves of <em>G arborea, E camaldulensis</em> and <em>A hypogea</em>) at 12 WAS had the highest value (13.94cm) while PCM<sub>1</sub> (pulverized leaves of <em>A indica,</em> <em>G arborea, E camaldulensis</em> and <em>A hypogea</em>) at five WAS had the least stem height value (3.99cm). It was also observed from the result obtained on composting durations for stem height that T<sub>3</sub> at 12 WAS had the highest value (12.18cm) while T<sub>2</sub> at five WAS had the least value (4.21cm). The result obtained for number of leaves showed that PCM<sub>5</sub> at 12 WAS had the highest value (9.67) while PCM<sub>1</sub> at five WAS had the least value (2.22). It was evident from the result obtained for number of leaves that T<sub>3</sub> at 12 WAS had the highest value (8.50) while T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub> at five WAS had the least value (2.50). The result obtained for root length analysis showed that PCM<sub>5 </sub>produced the highest root length value (9.28cm) while control had the least value (5.27cm). The result obtained for biomass showed that PCM<sub>2</sub> pulverized leaves of <em>A indica,</em> <em>G arborea and E camaldulensis</em>) produced highest weight value (0.56g) while PCM<sub>3 </sub>pulverized leaves of <em>A indica,</em> <em>G arborea</em> and <em>A hypogea</em>) had the least value (0.28g). T<sub>1 </sub>had the highest value which was not significantly different (P=0.05) from T<sub>2 </sub>and T<sub>3.</sub> Based on these findings, it was concluded that PCM<sub>5 </sub>at 12 WAS showed effectiveness on stem diameter, stem height, number of leaves, root length and biomass which indicates its potentials as a good source of nutrients (compost) for seedling growth and development.</p> Paul F. Adeogun, Musa Garba, Abubakar Usman, Alim Gupa Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Sun, 18 Jul 2021 15:35:43 +0000 Effect of Strenuous Exercise on Various Blood Parameters in Polo Horses at High Altitude (3,734 M) <p>Horses require heaps of energy in order to perform well. Proper care and management should therefore be provided to the racehorses so as to keep they perform at their optimum. The experiment used for normal horses. The blood samples were collected in the morning before subjecting the horses to polo match/ strenuous exercise and immediately after the physical activity. Various blood tests such as the complete blood count, lipid, protein tests were done. Significant elevations in the white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and some serological parameters in the blood polo horses were recorded after exercise. This study confirmed the findings of exercise on different blood parameters which can be possibly used as an index of fitness in horses.</p> Habibun Nabi, Sohail Khan, S. Rahimullah Shah, Hazrat Salman Siddique, Shakirullah Khan, Ibrar Hussain, Syed Imtiaz Ali Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Sun, 18 Jul 2021 15:41:20 +0000