A Comparative Study on the Characteristics of Road Traffic Accidents in China and Djibouti

  • Waiss Ali Aden School of Transportation and Logistics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
Keywords: Road accidents, injuries, traffic violations, China, Djibouti.


The purpose of this study is to estimate the comparative analysis of road traffic accidents in China and Djibouti for the period of 2012-2016. Traffic violations that lead to mortalities and severe injuries and fatalities are analyzed both for China as well as Djibouti. The comparative analysis is very interesting for having different results against the set variables. This study caters two explained variables: traffic violations and severity of injuries with explanatory variables of considering the riskiness factors of humans, vehicles, roads and environments. In line with the previous study, logistic regression analysis is used for getting the casual relationship between the explained and explanatory variables to assess the status and nature of accidents and fatalities in these two countries. The data are taken from the respective police departments and World Health Organization safety. With current economic boom in China, the volume of vehicle and traffic accidents are considerably higher but subsequently in decreasing trend due to good management of traffic and better infrastructure while the case of Djibouti is reasonably at a very low ebb. Furthermore, in both of these two countries, road accidents are the major reasons for mortality. Some of the prominent risk factors contributing to roads accidents are  age, an experience of drivers, male drivers, lacking proper maintenance of vehicles for safety, the design of roads, roads status, low visibility during nights due to low or no lightening system and weather. Goods and passengers vehicles tend to commit more traffic offences in Djibouti which resultantly become a major cause of road accidents and hence more severe fatalities. The first factor contributing the traffic violation and imply more and severe injuries are a human factor which if this can be effectively managed then the mortality rate can be mitigated to a substantial level. The second risk factor related to complying with government traffic rules, laws and regulations targeting various kinds of vehicles, driver groups in terms of reducing human, vehicle and environmental risk factors.  Such measures may include road safety programs for drivers, focusing on traffic rules and improvement of transport facility. This study eventually guide the traffic policy maker of these two countries for formulating and deploying effective measures for mitigating the mortalities and severity of injuries due to road accidents.


. WHO. Global status report on road safety, (2015). M. Stanislav, S. Henrikas, Transport 28, 108-115, (2013).

. Javed, S.A., Syed, A.M., & Javed, S. (2018). Perceived Organizational Performance and Trust in Project Manager and Top Management in Project-based organizations: Comparative Analysis using Statistical and Grey Systems methods. Grey Systems: Theory and Application. DOI:10.1108/GS-01-2018-0009

. Liu, P., Huang, J., Wang, W., Xu, C., 2013. Effects of transverse rumble strips on safety of pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads in China. Accid. Anal. Prev. 43, 1947-1954.

. Wang, Y., Hasseberg, M., Wu, Z. Laflamme, L., 2014. Distribution and characteristics of road traffic crashes in the Chaoyang District of Beijing, China. Accid. Anal. Prev. 40, 334-340.

. World Health Organization, 2013. Global Status Report On Road Safety: Time for Action

. Haddon, Jr W., 1968. The Changing approach to the epidemiology, prevention, and amelioration of trauma: the transition to approaches etiologically rather than descriptively based. American Journal of Public Health, 58, 1431–1438

. ZHANG, X., YAO, H., HU, G., CUI, M., GU, Y., & XIANG, H. (2013). Basic Characteristics of Road Traffic Deaths in China. Iranian J Publ Health, 42(1), 7-15.

. Huang H, Yin Q, Schwebel DC, Li L, Hu G (2016) Examining Road Traffic Mortality Status in China: A Simulation Study. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0153251. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153251

. Status report on road safety in countries of the WHO African Region 2009. Brazzaville: WHO Regional Ofce for Africa; 2010.

. Global status report on road safety 2015. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015.

. Juillard C, Labinjo M, Kobusingye O, Hyder AA (2016). Socioeconomic impact of road trafc injuries in West Africa: exploratory data from Nigeria. Inj Prev. 2010

. Chen Y, Wang K, King M, He J, Ding J, Shi Q, et al. (2016) Differences in Factors Affecting Various Crash Types with High Numbers of Fatalities and Injuries in China. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0158559. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158559

. Djibouti 2017 Crime & Safety Report. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2018, from https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=21764

. Javed, S. A., & Liu, SF. (2018). Predicting the Research Output/Growth of Selected Countries: Application of Even GM (1, 1) and NDGM Models. Scientometrics, 115(1), 395-413. DOI:10.1007/s11192-017-2586-5

. Javed, S. A. & Javed, S. (2015). The impact of product’s packaging color on customers’ buying preferences under time pressure. Marketing and Branding Research. 2 (1), 4-14

. Javed, S. A., & Liu, SF. (2017). Evaluation of Project Management Knowledge Areas using Grey Incidence Model and AHP. Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Grey Systems and Intelligent Services. Stockholm, Sweden: IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/GSIS.2017.8077684

. Javed, S. A. & Javed, S. (2015). The impact of product’s packaging color on customers’ buying preferences under time pressure. Marketing and Branding Research. 2 (1), 4-14.

. Javed, S. A., & Ilyas, F. (2018). Service Quality and Satisfaction in Healthcare Sector of Pakistan – The Patients’ Expectations. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 31(6). DOI:10.1108/IJHCQA-08-2016-0110

. Liu, P., Huang, J., Wang, W., Xu, C., 2011. Effects of transverse rumble strips on safety of pedestrian crosswalks on rural roads in China. Accid. Anal. Prev. 43, 1947-1954.

. Huang, Y.H., Zhang, W., Morphy, L., Shi, G., Lin, Y., 2011. Attitudes and behavior of Chinese drivers regarding seatbelt use. Accid. Anal. Prev. 40, 889-897.

. Huang, Y.H., Rau, P.L.P., Zhang, B., Roetting, M., 2008. Chinese truck drivers' attitudes toward feedback by technology: A quantitative approach. Accid. Anal. Prev. 40, 1553-1562.

. Kong, C., Yang, J., 2010. Logistic regression analysis of pedestrian casualty risk in passenger vehicle collisions in China. Accid. Anal. Prev. 42, 987-993.

. Savolainen, P.T., Mannering, F.L., Lord, D., Quddus, M.A., 2011. The statistical analysis of highway crash-injury severities: A review and assessment of methodological alternatives. Accid. Anal. Prev. 43, 1666-1676.

. MacLeod, K.E., Griswold, J.B., Arnold, L.S., Ragland, D.R., 2011. Factors associated with hit-and-run pedestrian fatalities and driver identification. Accid. Anal. Prev. 45, 366–372.

. Holubowycz, O.T., Kloeden, C.N., McLean, A.J., 1994. Age, sex, and blood alcohol concentration of killed and injured drivers, riders, and passengers. Accid. Anal. Prev. 26, 483–492.

. Massie, D.L., Campbell, K.L., Williams, A.F., 1995. Traffic accident involvement rates by driver age and gender. Accid. Anal. Prev. 27, 73–87.

. Hayakawa, H., Fischbeck, P.S., Fischhoff, B., 2000. Traffic accident statistics and risk perceptions in Japan and the United States. Accid. Anal. Prev. 32, 827–835.

. Zhang, J., Lindsay, J., Clarke, K., Robbins, G., Mao, Y., 2000. Factors affecting the severity of motor vehicle traffic crashes involving elderly drivers in Ontario. Accid. Anal. Prev. 32, 117–125.

. Valent, F., Schiava, F., Savonitto, C., Gallo, T., Brusaferro, S., Barbone, F., 2002. Risk factors for fatal road traffic accidents in Udine, Italy. Accid. Anal. Prev. 34, 71–84.

. Yau, K.K.W., 2004. Risk factors affecting the severity of single vehicle traffic accidents in Hong Kong. Accid. Anal. Prev. 36, 333–340.

. Yau, K.K.W., Lo, H.P., Fung, S.H.H., 2006. Multiple-vehicle traffic accidents in Hong Kong. Accid. Anal. Prev. 38, 1157-1161.

. Kim K., Brunner I.M., Yamashita E., 2008. Modeling fault among accident-involved pedestrians and motorists in Hawaii. Accid. Anal. Prev. 40, 2043-2049.

. Hasselberg, M., Vaeza, M., Laflamme, L., 2005. Socioeconomic aspects of the circumstances and consequences of car crashes among young adults. Social Science & Medicine, 60, 287–295.

. Bedard, M., Guyatt, G.H., Stones, M.J., Hirdes, J.P., 2002. The independent contribution of driver, crash, and vehicle characteristics to driver fatalities. Accid. Anal. Prev. 34, 717–727.

. Derrig, R.A., Segui-Gomez, M., Abtahi, A., Liu, L.L., 2002. The effect of population safety belt usage rates on motor vehicle-related fatalities. Accid. Anal. Prev. 34, 101–110.

. Fosgerau, M. Speed and income, 2005. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 39, 225-240.

. Factor, R., Mahalel, D., Yair, G., 2008. Inter-group differences in road-traffic crash involvement. Accid. Anal. Prev. 40, 2000-2007.

. Zhuang, X., Wu, C., 2011. Pedestrians' crossing behaviors and safety at unmarked roadway in China. Accid. Anal. Prev. 43, 1927-1936.

. Zhang, W., Huang, Y.H., Roetting, M., Wang, Y., Wei, H., 2006. Driver's views and behaviors about safety in China - What do they NOT know about driving? Accid. Anal. Prev. 38, 22-27.

. Hijar, M., Carrillo, C., Flores, M., Anaya, R., Lopez, V., 2000. Risk factors in highway traffic accidents: a case control study. Accid. Anal. Prev. 32, 703–709.

. Al-Ghamdi, A.S., 2002. Using logistic regression to estimate the influence of accident factors on accident severity. Accid. Anal. Prev. 34, 729–741.

. Wang, Y., Hasseberg, M., Wu, Z. Laflamme, L., 2008. Distribution and characteristics of road traffic crashes in the Chaoyang District of Beijing, China. Accid. Anal. Prev. 40, 334-340.

. Yakovlev, P.A., Inden, M., 2010. Mind the weather: a panel data analysis of time-invariant factors and traffic fatalities. Economics Bulletin, 30, 2685-2696.