Study of Debris Generated by the Earthquake with Special Reference to Gurkha Earthquake 2015 in Nepal


  • Humagain Abhimanyu Lumbini International Academy of Science and Technology (LIAST), Nepal
  • Dahal Khet Raj Lumbini International Academy of Science and Technology (LIAST), Nepal


Debris management strategy, Gorkha earthquake 2015, 3R principles, unit estimate of debris, public awareness, composition of earthquake debris.


This study was carried out during the period from May to August 2018.  Literatures from various sources were collected and the conclusion was drawn. The study found that the types of debris depends on the types of disaster. There are various types of formulae identified by different writers, which are used to calculate the volume of the debris generated by the disasters. The debris generated by the Gorkha earthquake 2015 in Nepal was not managed properly though there is huge quantity of debris to be managed.  Similarly, there is no strategic plan, no appropriate technology, no pre–disaster debris management planning. The debris was cleared from the public places but it could not be managed properly due to various difficulties such as public awareness, technology know how and lack of resources. The economic value of the debris was not considered by the government agencies. Furthermore, there is lack of co-ordination between stakeholders, lack of supporting organizations in this sector, the support was only focused on search and rescue for survival but not on debris management, and no proper mechanism for community mobilization for disaster debris management.


. Brown, Charlotte, Mark Milke, and Erica Seville. 2011. “Disaster Waste Management: A Review Article.” Waste Management 31(6):1085–98.

. Solis, Gabriela Y., Henry C. Hightower, Jim Sussex, and June Kawaguchi. 1995. “Disaster Debris Management.” (June):30.

. For, Office, T. H. E. Coordination, O. F. Humanitarian, and Environmental Emergencies Section. 2001. “UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR THE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS Disaster Waste Management Guidelines.” Environment (July):1–16.

. NSET Information Kit |022| .2011. “Development of National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management in Nepal (NSDRM).”

. World Bank .2013. “Managing Nepal ’ s Urban Transition, 3–5.” Retrieved from

. Bijaya K Shrestha. 2005. “Earthquake Vulnerability of Kathmandu: A product of failed building premits system and urban development”.

. GoN MoFALD. 2014. “Kathmandu Valley Post-Earthquake Debris Management.” 1–9.

. Thapa, Narayan. 2016. “Nepal Earthquake 2015: Lesson Learnt and Future Guidance.” Asian Conference on Disaster Reduction 1–51The

. Arun Bhakta Shrestha, Samjwal Ratna Bajracharya, Jeffrey S. Kargel, Narendra Raj Khanal. 2016. “The impact of Nepal’s 2015 Gorkha earthquake-induced

. Ohsumi, Tsuneo, Yoichi Mukai, and Hideo Fujitani. 2016. “Investigation of Damage in and Around Kathmandu Valley Related to the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake and Beyond.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 34(4):1223–45.

. Yang, Chau-Ping. 2009. “Composition of Demolition Wastes from Chi-Chi Earthquake-Damaged Structures and the Properties of Their Inert Materials.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal 46(4):470–81.

. Muraligopal Ranjitkar, Saroj Upadhyay.1015. “Post-Earthquake Debris Management Challenge and Opportunity in Nepal”

. GoN. 2015. “Disaster Waste Management Policy, Strategy & Action Plan. Final Report Published by Government of Nepal in Support of LEAD Nepal and UNEP-IETC, 2015.” (December):1–87.

. Seeber, L. and Armbruster, J.1981. “Great detachment earthquakes along the Himalaya arc and long-term forecasting in earthquake prediction.” An International Review, Maurice Ewing Series Vol. 4, pp. 259-279

. Thapa D. R. and Qyoxin W .2013. “Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis in Nepal.”

. Binns, W.-Y. L. & C. 1979. “Disasters and Public Health Concerns.” 57, 11–17

. UNEP/OCHA (2013): Disaster Waste Management Guideline (United Nations office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs emergency preparedness section)

. Ranim Kaja .2015. “Post-Disaster Solid Waste Management, Case Studies and Thematic Analysis” Report, Environment Audit. 2015. “Solid Waste Management of Kathmandu Metropolitan City.” 321–42.

. Karunasena, Gi, Rdg Amaratunga, and Rp Haigh. 2010. “Waste Management Strategies during Post Disaster Phase: A Case of Sri Lanka.”

. Yesiller, N. (2012). “Decisive Disaster Debris Management.” Waste Management World, < 12/issue-4/temp/decisive-disaster-debris-management.html> (Sep. 26, 2013).

. Booth, W. (2010). “Haiti faces colossal and costly cleanup before it can rebuild.” Washington Post.

. Di.Coma.C. (2010). “Procedure e strumenti per la gestione delle macerie da crolli e demolizioni e da interventi di ristrutturazione immobiliare.” Protezione Civile.

. Taylor, A. (2008). “Sichuan’s earthquake, six months later.” NY times, .

. Luther, L. (2006). Disaster Debris Removal After Hurricane Katrina. 22.

. Solid Waste Authority. (2004). 2003–2004 Annual Report: Mountains of Debris. Palm Beach County, Florida.

. Bjerregaard, M. (2010). Debris Management Guidelines.

. MSW. (2006). “MSW Management Journal.” MSW Management Journal, (Semtember/October), 36.

. FEMA. 2007. “Debris Management Guide, Public Assistance”, FEMA-325 / July 2007

. EPA.2008. “Planning for Natural Disaster Debris management”

. EPA. 1995. “Planning for Disaster Debris. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency”.

. Kim, Jooho. 2014. “A Framework of Effective Debris Management for a Resilient Community.”

. He, C., & Wong, T. f. 2014. “Effect of varying normal stress on stability and dynamic motin of a spring-slider system with rate- and state-dependent friction. Springer.”

. Helmstetter, A. 2003. “Is Earthquake Triggering Driven by Small Earthquakes?” PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 91(5), 058501-1 - 058501-4.

. Liu, Z., & Sun, S. 2009. “The Disaster of May 12th Wenchuan Earthquake and Its Influence on Debris Flows.” Journal of Geography and Geology, 1(1), 2630

. Pheng, L. S., Raphael, B., & Kit, W. K. 2006. “Tsunamis: Some pre-emptive disaster planning and management issues for consideration by the construction industry.” Structural Survey, 24(5), 378-396

. Jianqi, Z., Peng, C., Kaiheng, H., Xiaoqing, C., & Yonggang, G. 2010. Characteristics of Earthquake-Triggered Landslides and Post-Earthquake Debris Flows in Beichuan County. Journal of Mountain Science, 246–254.

. Roghair, C. N., Dolloff, C. A., & Underwood, M. K. 2002. “Response of a Brook Trout Population and Instream Habitat to a Catastrophic Flood and Debris Flow. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society”, 131(4), 718–730

. Como, A., & Mahmoud, H. 2013, July 31. “Numerical evaluation of tsunami debris impact loading on wooden structural walls. Engineering Structures,” 1249–1261.

. UNEP. (2012). Managing post-disaster debris: The Japan experience. United Nations Environment Programme

. UNDP .2012. “ Technical Guide for Debris Management” (the Haitian Experience 2010-2012)

. UNEP .2010. “Better, Building Back. “UNEP in China.”

. Sakai, S., & Bettencourt, S. 2012, September 24. “Knowledge Notes, Cluster 4: Recovery Planning,” Note 4-4. Retrieved December 18, 2014, from The World Bank Institute:

. Indrawati, S.-M., & Steer, A. 2005. “INDUNESIA: Perliminary damage and loss assessment, The December 26,2004 Natural Disaster. BAPPENAS & Internatonal donor community”

. Bedient, P. B. (Ed.). 2012. “Lessons from Hurricane Ike (First ed.). Texas A&M University Press”.

. Escobedo, F. J., Luley, C. J., Bond, J., Staudhammer, C., & Bartel, C. 2009.” Hurricane Debris and Damage Assessment for Florida Urban Forests. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry,” 35(2), 100-106.

. Gautam, Dipendra and Deepak Chamlagain. 2016. “Preliminary Assessment of Seismic Site Effects in the Fluvio-Lacustrine Sediments of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.” Natural Hazards 81(3):1745–69.

. Brown, Charlotte. 2012. “Waste Management Following Earthquake Disaster.”

. Taylor, A. (2008, 26 November 2008). Sichuan's earthquake, six months later, The Boston Globe.

. UNOCHA. (2011). Disaster Waste Management Guidelines (Vol. January 2011). Geneva: Emergency Preparedness Section, Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit.USEPA.

. Baycan, F. (2004). Emergency Planning for Disaster Waste: A Proposal based on the xperience of the Marmara Earthquake in Turkey. Paper presented at the International Conference and Student Competition on post-disaster reconstruction "Planning for reconstruction" Coventry, UK. %20Baycan%20F.pdf

. Hirayama, N., Kawata, Y., Suzuki, S., & Harada, K. (2009). Estimation procedure for potential quantity of tsunami debris on tsunami earthquake disasters. Paper presented at the Sardinia 2009, Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy.

. Memon, Mushtaq A. 2015. “Disaster Waste Recovery and Utilization in Developing Countries – Learning from Earthquakes in Nepal.” Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication Vol. 2 (20:143–47.

. Cheng, Cheng. 2018. “Optimisation of Disaster Waste Management Systems by Declaration of Authorship.” (June).

. Hirayama, N., Shimaoka, T., Fujiwara, T., Okayama, T., Kawata, Y. 2010. “Establishment of disaster debris management based on quantitative estimation using natural hazard maps.” Fifth International Conference on Waste Management and the Environment, C. A. Popov, V., Itoh, H., Mander, U., Brebbia, ed. Inoue

. Niluka Domingo, Hao Kuo. 2016. “Canterbury Earthquake Construction and Demolition Waste Management Issues and Improvement Suggestion.”

. Karunasena, Gayani, Dilanthi Amaratunga, and Richard Haigh., & Lill, I. 2009. “Post disaster waste management strategies in Developing countries: Case of Sri Lanka. International Journal of strategic Property Management,” 13(2), 171-190.

. UNEP & OCHA .2011. “Disaster Waste Management Guidelines. Switzerland: UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit.”

. Elisabeth Krausmann and Ana Maria Cruz. 2011.” Impact of the 11 March 2011, Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on the chemical industry.”

. Kamiya, Setsuko. (2011, June 30). Debris removal, recycling daunting, piecemeal labor. Retrieved November 23, 2014, from The Japan Times:

. Askarizadeh, L., A. R. Karbassi, M. B. Ghalibaf, and J. Nouri. 2016. “Management of Post-Earthquake Construction Debris in Tehran Metropolitan.” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 13(2):639–48.

. Ergun, OZlem DesRoches, Reginald Keskinocak, Pinar.2015.” RAPID: Earthquake Debris management in Haiti: Data-driven Decision-Support.”

. CHF international. 2012. “Coversheet for Environmental Mitigation Plan and Report” (EMPR: Debris Removal)

. Srinivas, By Hari and Sri Lanka. 2004. “The Indian Ocean Tsunami and Its Environmental Impacts.” (December):1–9.

. World Bank. 2008. “Aceh Poverty Assessment 2008: The Impact of the Conflict , the Tsunami And Reconstruction on Poverty in Aceh.” 76.

. Number, Project, Aidan Cox, United Nations, and Development Programme. 2007. “Technical Assistance Consultant ’ s Report Support for Strengthening the Tsunami Development Assistance Database.” (March).


. Ramesh Basel. Aug 9, 2017. Disaster Waste Management in Nepal (Nature Khabar).

. Chaulagain, Hemchandra, Hugo Rodrigues, Vitor Silva, Enrico Spacone, and Humberto Varum. 2016. “Earthquake Loss Estimation for the Kathmandu Valley.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 14(1):59–88.

. International, Geohazards. 2007. “The World Most Earthquake-Vulnerable Cities.” (October 2005):12–13.

. Mugnier, J. L., P. Huyghe, A. P. Gajurel, B. N. Upreti, and F. Jouanne. 2011. “Seismites in the Kathmandu Basin and Seismic Hazard in Central Himalaya.” Tectonophysics 509(1–2):33–49.


. Sheresta, A. B., S. R. Bajracharya, J. S. Kargel, and N. R. Khandal. 2016. “The Impact of Nepal’s 2015 Gorkha Earthquake-Induced Geohazards.” 36.

. McGowan, S. M., K. S. Jaiswal, and D. J. Wald. 2017. “Using Structural Damage Statistics to Derive Macroseismic Intensity within the Kathmandu Valley for the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake.” Tectonophysics 714–715:158–72.

. Dalit Civil Society .2015. “District-wise Damage Summary.” 557

. Dugar, Nivesh, Sailesh Karanjit, Nawa Raj Khatiwada, and Surya Man Shakya. 2017. “Post Disaster Waste Management : Lessons Learnt from 2015 Nepal Post Disaster Waste Management : Lessons Learnt from 2015 Nepal Earthquake.” (January 2018).

. UNDP .2015. Debris Management (Supporting Nepal in Building Back Better)

. Shrestha, Pranay. 2018. “Going for Zero Waste Post-Disaster.” 2018.

. Poudel, Raju, Yasuhiro Hirai, and Misuzu Asari. 2018. “Establishment of Unit Generation Rates of Building Debris in Kathmandu Valley , Nepal , after the Gorkha Earthquake.” Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 0(0):0.

. Slok Gyawali. August 6, 2015. “Kathmandu’s Uncoordinated Attempt to Manage Earthquake Debris.”

. Kathmandu Post. 2015. “After Disaster, Authorities Now Face Debris Dilemma.” Kathmandu Post, 2015.

. Gautam, D., Bhetwal, Krishna Kumar Rodrigues, H., Neupane, P. & Sanada, Y.2015. “Observed Damage Patterns on Buildings during 2015 Gorkha (Nepal )” Earthquake. Proc. 14th Int. Symp. New Technol. Urban Saf. Mega Cities Asia 8 (2015). doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4422.3444

. Ohsumi, Tsuneo, Yoichi Mukai, and Hideo Fujitani. 2016. “Investigation of Damage in and Around Kathmandu Valley Related to the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake and Beyond.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 34(4):1223–45.

. Innovative Solution Pvt. Ltd. 2016. “The Impact of the 2015 Earthquake on Housing and Livelihoods in Urban Areas in Nepal.” (June):1–59.

. Dugar, Nivesh, Sailesh Karanjit, Nawa Raj Khatiwada, and Surya Man Shakya. 2017. “Post Disaster Waste Management : Lessons Learnt from 2015 Nepal Post Disaster Waste Management : Lessons Learnt from 2015 Nepal Earthquake.” (January 2018)




How to Cite

Abhimanyu, H., & Khet Raj, D. (2019). Study of Debris Generated by the Earthquake with Special Reference to Gurkha Earthquake 2015 in Nepal. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 53(1), 182–206. Retrieved from