Application of a Modified ACO Algorithm for Optimizing Routes and Externality Effect of Solid Waste Management


  • Stephen Kwaku Okrah Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Ghana Communication Technology University, PMB 100, Tesano - Accra, Ghana,Mathematical Sciences Department, University of Mines and Technology, P. O. Box 237, Tarkwa, Ghana.
  • Eric Neebo Wiah Mathematical Sciences Department, University of Mines and Technology, P. O. Box 237, Tarkwa, Ghana.
  • Henry Otoo Department of Mathematics, Shama Senior High School, P. O. Box 30, Shama, Western Region, Ghana.
  • Justice Kangah Department of Mathematics, Shama Senior High School, P. O. Box 30, Shama, Western Region, Ghana.


Ant colony optimization, ant colony system algorithm, metaheuristic, bi-objective problem, externality effects, waste management


To improve solid waste management and maintain its sustainability, it is important to reduce both the solid waste operational cost which includes the monetary value of distances covered and the externality effects of solid waste management. Therefore, this paper presents an application of a modified Ant Colony System algorithm to a bi-objective model for solid waste management in the Shama District in the Western Region of Ghana. The objective is to optimize route lengths and externality effects of solid waste management. Data on route lengths and population of communities along the routes were collected from 20 communities in the Shama Distric. Externality effect was measured by considering the population of the communities along the routes, the cost of treating a common cold subject to the assumption of two percent of the population being affected by the externality effect. The implemented algorithm has demonstrated the bi-objective optimal solution of route length (km) and externality effect (GHS) of (11, 2100) achievable on the path , which respectively represents a path linking the following communities: Aboadze, Abuesi Assorko Essaman, Beposo, Bosomdo and Fawomanye. There is therefore the need to ensure that the communities involved are linked with good roads.


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How to Cite

Okrah, S. K., Wiah, E. N. ., Otoo, H., & Justice Kangah. (2023). Application of a Modified ACO Algorithm for Optimizing Routes and Externality Effect of Solid Waste Management. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 93(1), 140–155. Retrieved from