Onto4CAAL: An Ontology to Support Requirements Specification in the Development of AAL (Ambient Assisted Living) Systems


  • Timóteo G. Silva Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE) -Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering (PPGEE/UFPE), Electronics and Systems Department, 50.740-560, Recife – Brazil
  • Fernanda Alencar Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE) -Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering (PPGEE/UFPE), Electronics and Systems Department, 50.740-560, Recife – Brazil


Compliance, Requirements Specification, Ontology, AAL Systems


The Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is a technological approach that emerged to meet the demands of the elderly and people with disabilities. As they are considered complex and multidisciplinary systems, it is necessary to identify and define which modules need to compose these systems. Among the challenges found in the development of the AAL systems are the alignment with functional and/or non-functional requirements and the compliance with ethical, legal, social, medical and technical restrictions that guide these types of systems. Therefore, this work presents a core ontology (Onto4CAAL) to support the specification of requirements in AAL systems, where the elements that are part of the system type are integrated. Using this ontology, it was possible to develop a domain ontology (Onto4Elev) for Vertical Lift Platforms, where a validation was carried out with the industry in relation to the elements that constitute it and, later, a scenario was built for the application simulation and verification. With the use of ontology, it will be possible to standardize the understanding of the associated terms and, at the same time, to verify the relationship among the elements, helping the designer in the decision making.


Cicirelli, Grazia, et al. "Ambient assisted living: A review of technologies, methodologies and future perspectives for healthy aging of population." Sensors 21.10 (2021): 3549.

Vimarlund, Vivian, et al. "Ambient assisted living: Identifying new challenges and needs for digital technologies and service innovation." Yearbook of Medical Informatics 30.01 (2021): 141-149.

Programm AAL. Disponível online: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php (acessado em 4 de julho de 2022).

Cheng, D. C., Villamarin, J. B., Cu, G., & Lim-Cheng, N. R. “Towards Compliance Management Automation thru Ontology mapping of Requirements to Activities and Controls”. In 2018 Cyber Resilience Conference (CRC) (pp. 1-3). IEEE, 2018.

Lentzas, A., & Vrakas, D. “Non-intrusive human activity recognition and abnormal behavior detection on elderly people: a review”. Artificial Intelligence Review, 1-47, 2019.

Silva, T. G., & Alencar, F. M., “Ontologias para Sistemas AAL que abordem Compliance: um mapeamento sistemático da literature”, 2020.

Gomes, T., & Alencar, F. “Análise de Ontologias para Sistemas AAL (Ambient Assisted Living) e o suporte a Compliance”, WER, 2021.

Benghazi, K., et. al. “Enabling correct design and formal analysis of Ambient Assisted Living systems”. Journal of Systems and Software, 2012.

Ranieri, Caetano Mazzoni, et al. "Activity recognition for ambient assisted living with videos, inertial units and ambient sensors." Sensors 21.3 (2021): 768.

Machado, A., Maran, V., Augustin, I., Wives, L. K., & de Oliveira, J. P. M. “Reactive, pro-active, and extensible situation-awareness in ambient assisted living”. Expert Systems with Applications, 76, 21-35, 2017.

Nakagawa, E. Y., Antonino, P. O., Becker, M., Maldonado, J. C., Storf, H., Villela, K. B., & Rombach, D. “Relevance and perspectives of AAL in Brazil”. Journal of Systems and Sof-tware, 86(4), 985-996, 2013.

Netto, C. M. “Proposta de modelo de requisitos para ferramentas de visualização de ontologia de domínio”. UFMG, 2017.

Gruber, T. R. “A translation approach to portable ontology specifications”. Knowledge acquisition, 5(2), 199-220, 1993.

Felicíssimo, C. H., & Breitman, K. K. “Taxonomic Ontology Alignmentan Implementation”. In WER (pp. 152-163), 2004.

Campos, M. L. A. “O papel das definições na pesquisa em ontologia. Perspectivas em Ciência da Informação”, Belo Horizonte, v. 15, n. 1, p.220-238, jan/abr. 2010.

Vital, L. P., & Café, L. M. A. “Ontologias e taxonomias: diferenças. Perspectivas em Ciência da Informação”, 16(2), 115-130 (2011).

Culmone, R., et al. “AAL domain ontology for event-based human activity recognition.” IEEE/ASME 10th International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA). IEEE, 2014.

Coimbra, M.A; Manzi, V.A. “Manual de Compliance”. São Paulo: Atlas, 2010.

NBR ISO 19600/2016 – “Sistema de Gestão de Compliance: Diretrizes”. ABNT, 2016.

Zhong, B. T., et al. “Ontology-based semantic modeling of regulation constraint for automated construction quality compliance checking”. Automation in Construction, 2012.

Jorshari, F. Z., & Tawil, R. H. “A High-Level Scheme for an Ontology-Based Compliance Framework in Software Development”. IEEE 17th International Conference on High Perfor-mance Computing and Communications, IEEE, 2015.

Abran, A. et al. “Guide to the software engineering body of knowledge” (SWEBOK (R)). 3.0 ed. Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society, 2004.

Carvalho, E. A.; Eescovedo, T.; Melo, R. N. “Using Business Processes in System Requirements Definition”. In: 2009 33rd Annual IEEE Software Engineering Workshop, 2009.

Bettaz, Mohamed, and Mourad Maouche. "Using UML-MARTE and TCOZ for AAL System Specifications: A Case Study." 2018 7th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). IEEE, 2018.

Alosaimi, Wael, et al. "Evaluating the impact of different symmetrical models of ambient assisted living systems." Symmetry 13.3 (2021).

Augusto, J.C., Increasing reliability in the development of intelligent environments.In: Intelligent Environments, pp. 134–141, 2009.

Erazo-Garzon, Lenin, Lourdes Illescas-Peña, and Priscila Cedillo. "A quality in use model for ambient assisted living (AAL) systems." International Conference on Applied Technologies. Springer, Cham, 2020.

Nehmer, J., Becker, M., Karshmer, A., & Lamm, R. “Living assistance systems: an ambient intelligence approach”. In Proceedings of the 28th international conference on Software engineering (pp. 43-50). ACM, 2006.

Rautenberg, S.; Todesco, J. L.; Steil, A. V.; Gauthier, F.A. O. Uma Metodologia para o Desenvolvimento de Ontologias A Methodology for the Development of Ontologies. Revista Ciências Exatas e Naturais, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 2, p. 237–262, 2008.

Gómez-Pérez, A., et al. Ontologic Engineering: with examples from the areas of knowledge management, ecommerce and the semantic web. London: Springer-Verlag, 2004.

Corcho, O.; Fernández-López, M.; Gómez-Pérez, A.. Ontological engineering: principles, methods, tools and languages. In: Ontologies for software engineering and software technology. [s.l.] : Springer, 2006. p. 1–48.

Guizzardi, G. “Ontological foundations for structural conceptual models”, 2005.

Guizzardi, G., & Wagner, G. “Conceptual simulation modeling with ONTO-UML advanced tutorial”. In Proceedings of the 2012 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC). IEEE, 2012.

Gomes, T., & Alencar, F. Um survey com especialistas como validação de elementos para composição de uma ontologia para Sistemas AAL (Ambient Assisted Living).WER, 2022.

Garcés, L., et al. Quality attributes and quality models for ambient assisted living software systems: A systematic mapping. Information and Software Technology, 2017.

Gomes, T. B. Projeto mecânico de uma plataforma de elevação motorizada para pessoas com mobilidade reduzida. Universidade de Brasília, 2019.

Cameranesi, M., et al. "Goaal: An ontology for goal-oriented development of aal environments." Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. 2016.

Villarreal, V., et al. "Mobile and ubiquitous architecture for the medical control of chronic diseases through the use of intelligent devices: Using the architecture for patients with diabetes". Future generation computer systems 34: 161-175, 2014.

Mocholí, J. B., et al. Ontology for modeling interaction in ambient assisted living environments. In: XII Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 2010. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. p. 655-658, 2010.

Kitchenham, B.; Pfleeger, S. L. “Principles of survey research”. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, v. 27, n. 5, p. 17-20, 2002.




How to Cite

Timóteo G. Silva, & Alencar, F. (2022). Onto4CAAL: An Ontology to Support Requirements Specification in the Development of AAL (Ambient Assisted Living) Systems. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 90(1), 476–500. Retrieved from https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/8385