Indirections as Verbal Mode of Communication in Gurene


  • Joseph Ayamga Department of Languages, English Language Unit, St. John Bosco College of Education, P. O. Box 11, Navrongo, Ghana.
  • Patrick A. Apeligiba Department of Languages, English Language Unit, St. John Bosco College of Education, P. O. Box 11, Navrongo, Ghana.


Indirection, verbal communication, Functional Linguistics Theory, Discourse Research Design, Pragmatic Linguistics Method, linguistic taboos, societal norms


The primary aim of this paper is to identify and assess the various types of indirections used by Gurene speakers for verbal communication and the roles that indirections play in the language. Indirections are generally used as verbal mode of communication in many languages. Speakers of various languages use indirections for distinct purposes; hence the conventions in which indirections are used vary across different languages. Figurative expressions are used in place of indirections in many languages including the English language for aesthetic value and other purposes. The most widely held view is that African languages use a lot of proverbs in speech. Conceivably, African languages rather use indirections. Ghanaian culture as in many African cultures obligates individuals and institutions to use indirections in speech in a manner that conforms to societal norms. The functional linguistics theory framework is adopted in the paper. The Discourse Research Design was used, and the Pragmatic Linguistics Method applied for gathering and analyzing both primary and secondary data. The findings revealed different types of indirections that play several distinct verbal communication roles comprising eschewing linguistics taboos, applying cultural communication norms, and for performing traditional, social, economic and political activities regarding verbal communication in the language. Though indirections are most cherished and valued because of their positive effects, the paper proved that some indirections exhibit negative impact. Hence, we recommend that the use of indirections that have adverse effects should be eschewed.


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How to Cite

Ayamga, J., & Patrick A. Apeligiba. (2022). Indirections as Verbal Mode of Communication in Gurene. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 90(1), 321–339. Retrieved from