Pathological Mechanism of Atherosclerosis


  • Muhammad Naeem Institute of Research and Information Mirpur, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
  • Irum Naureen Assistant Professor, Minhaj University Lahore
  • Aisha Saleem M. Phil Researcher, Minhaj University Lahore
  • Rabia Yousaf M. Phil Researcher, Minhaj University Lahore
  • Shafa Fatima M. Phil Researcher, Minhaj University Lahore
  • Memoona Saher M. Phil Researcher, Minhaj University Lahore
  • Iza Tahreem M. Phil Researcher, Minhaj University Lahore
  • Sehrish Rauf M. Phil Researcher, Minhaj University Lahore


Endothelial dysfunction, ROS, LDL, oxLDL, Macrophages, Foam cells, Plaque, NOS, hypercholesterolemia, microRNAs (miRNAs), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene, telomere length (LTL)


Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial, smoldering, focal (intima of bifurcated blood arteries), chronic, progressive asymptotically, immune-inflammatory, disorder driven by lipid imbalance, in the large to medium sized (upto3mm external diameter) arteries with many cardiovascular clinical manifestations. Atherosclerosis developmentinvolves many cells, organs and even disturbed blood flow. The progression of atherosclerotic disease depends on the presence, degree, and persistence of risk factors like high-fat diet, smoking, hypertension, history of heart diseases, or diabetes. Endothelial dysfunction, ROS, accumulation of LDL, recruitment of Monocytes and T cells, differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and foam cells, formation of plaque and rupturing of plaque are key steps behind the clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis in cardiovascular diseases. This article describes the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, possibility of therapeutically targeting mechanism and interventions which can be helpful to reverse or slower the atherosclerosis. 


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How to Cite

Muhammad Naeem, Irum Naureen, Aisha Saleem, Rabia Yousaf, Shafa Fatima, Memoona Saher, Iza Tahreem, & Sehrish Rauf. (2022). Pathological Mechanism of Atherosclerosis. American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 89(1), 31–44. Retrieved from