Aquatic Macrophytes Composition and Diversity in Selected Sites of Lumbocan River, Butuan City, Agusan del Norte, Philippines


  • Jeffry M. Saro Research Analyst and Science Teacher, Department of Education, Division of Agusan del Sur, San Rafael, Prosperidad Agusan del Sur 8500, Philippines
  • Kimberly B. Pascual Teacher I, Department of Education, Division of Butuan City, Barangay Baan Km. 3, Butuan City Agusan del Norte 8600, Philippines
  • Deven P. Coquilla Teacher I, Department of Education, Division of Agusan del Sur, Tabontabon, Sibagat Agusan del Sur 8503, Philippines
  • Mary Joy P. Araneta Teacher I, Department of Education, Division of Agusan del Sur, Sta. Irene, Prosperidad Agusan del Sur 8500, Philippines


Macrophyte species, Quadrat sampling, Biodiversity


The aquatic macrophyte species has a great significant impact to the aquatic ecosystem as they plainly provide shelter for young fishes and other aquatic organisms. This study aimed to assess and evaluate the composition and diversity of macrophyte species in selected sites of Lumbocan River, Butuan City, Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The sampling sites were located near the roadway and considered to be swamp area, also it was primarily located along the middle point of Lumbocan River. Nonetheless, the researchers were utilized quadrat sampling as one of the classic tools used in ecology especially determining the diversity of a specific area. A total of 6 species aquatic macrophytes belonging to 6 families and 3 divisions was primarily collected and plainly identified at the study location. The division of Magnoliophyta had three-identified aquatic macrophytes that includes Pistia stratiotes (Araceae), Ipomea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae), Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae). While, the division of Pteridophyta had 2 species of aquatic macrophytes, this includes Ceratopteris thalictroides (Parkeriaceae) and Salvinia molesta (Salviniaceae). Lastly, the division of Tracheophyta had only 1 aquatic macrophyte, the Euryale ferox (Nymphaeaceae). Overall species diversity of the study sites is also in medium diversity of 1.745 because most likely the macrophyte communities were similar in all transects. Hence, the research study might be used as a baseline for future research, specifically in the context of the ecosystem services, sustainable macrophytes species monitoring and conservation programmes.


Aishan, T., Betz, F., Halik, U., Cyffka, B., Rouzi, A. Biomass Carbon Sequestration Potential by Riparian Forest in the Tarim River Watershed, Northwest China: Implication for the Mitigation of Climate Change Impact. Volume 9, Number 4, 2018. 196.

Amper, R.A.L., Puno, G.R., Puno, R.C.C. Rapid assessment of the riparian zone habitat of river. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management. Volume 5, Number 2, 2019. 175-190

Ansari, A.A., Saggu, S., Aquatic Plant Biodiversity: A Biological Indicator for the Monitoring and Assessment of Water Quality. CAB International. Volume 3, 2017. DOI:10.1079/9781780646947.0218

Arboleya, E., Fernandez, S., Clusa, L., Dopico, E., Vazquez, E.G. River Connectivity is Crucial for Safeguarding Biodiversity but May be Socially Overlooked. Insights From Spanish University Students. Frontiers in Environmental Science (2021).

Aznar, J.; Dervieux, A.; Grillas, P. Association between aquatic vegetation and landscape indicators of human pressure. Wetlands 2002, Volume 23, pp. 149–160.

Bahn, G.S., Kim, S.Y., Choi, J. Comparative Study on Flora Characteristics and Species Diversity on Dam Slopes for Sustainable Ecological Management: Cases of Eight Dams in Korea. MDPI. Volume 10, Number 12, 2021.

Boongaling, C.G., Faustino-Eslava, D.V., Lansigan, F.P. Modeling land use change impacts on the hydrology and the use of landscape metrics as tools for watershed management: The case of an ungauged catchment in the Philippines. Elsevier. 72 (2017). 116-128.

Borgward, F.; Robinson, L.; Trauner, D.; Teixeira, H.; Nogueira, A.J.A.; Lillebø, A.I.; Piet, G.; Kuemmerlen, M.; O’Higgins, T.; McDonaldg, H.; et al. Exploring variability in environmental impact risk from human activities across aquatic ecosystems. Sci. Total Environ. 2019, 652, 1396–1408.

Gallardo, B.; Clavero, M.; Sánchez, M.I.; Vilá, M. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems. Glob. Chang. Biol. 2016, 22, 151–163.

Garcia, F. C., Bestion, E., Warfield, R., & Yvon-Durocher, G. Changes in temperature alter the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. US. A. (2018) 115, 10989-10994. doi:10.1073/pnas.1805518115

Huang, X., Xu, X., et. al. Transformation of Aquatic Plant Diversity in an Environmentally Sensitive Area, the Lake Taihu Drainage. Frontiers in Plant Science (2020). DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2020.513788

Huang C, Bai J, Shao H, et al. Changes in soil properties before and after wetland degradation in the Yellow River Delta, China. CLEAN – Soil, Air, Water. 2012;40(10):1125–1130.

Hatton-Ellis, T.W.; Grieve, N.; Newman, J. Ecology of watercourses characterised by Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho Batrachion vegetation. Conserving Natural 2000 rivers ecology series. Engl. Nat. 2003, 11, 67.

Hajek M, Huskova P, Ko?í M, et al. Do we need soil moisture measurements in the vegetation– environment studies in wetlands? J Veg Sci. 2013;24(1):127–137.

Halabowski, D.; Lewin, I. Impact of anthropogenic transformations on the vegetation of selected abiotic types of rivers in two ecoregions (Southern Poland). Knowl. Manag. Aquat. Ecosyst. 2020, 421, 35.

Kuhar, U.; Germ, M.; Gaberš?cik, A.; Urbani?c, G. Development of a River Macrophyte Index (RMI) for assessing river ecological status. Limnologica 2011, 41, 235–243.

Jayatissa LP, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Koedam N. A review of the floral composition and distribution of mangroves in Sri Lanka. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society (2002) 138, p.29-43.

Minggagud H, Yang J. Wetland plant species diversity in sandy land of a semi-arid inland region of China. Plant Biosyst. 2013;147(1):25–32.

Madsen JD.,. Invasive aquatic plants: A threat to Mississippi water resources, Proceedings, Mississippi Water Resources Conference, Jackson, MS. pp. 122-134. In: 2004

Murphy, K.; Efremov, A.; Davidson, T.A.; Molina-Navarro, K.E.; Fidanza, T.C.; Cribellar Betiol, P. Chambers, Julissa Tapia Grimaldo, Sara Varandas Martins, Irina Springuel, Michael Kennedy, Roger Paulo (2021).

Mormul, Eric Dibble, Deborah Hofstra, Balázs András Lukács, Daniel Gebler, Lars Baastrup-Spohr, Jonathan Urrutia-Estrada. World distribution, diversity and endemism of aquatic macrophytes. Aquat. Bot. 2019, 158, 103127.

Napaldet, J.T., Buot, I.E. Diversity of aquatic macrophytes in Balili River, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines as potential phytoremediators. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversities. Volume 20, Issue 4, 2019.1048-1054. DOI:10.13057/biodiv/d200416

Nurlita, P., Hiola, S.F. The Diversity of Riparian Trees Vegetation at Around the Lawo River, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Physics (2019). doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1244/1/012008

Nsor, C. A., Antobre, O. O., Mohammed, A. S., & Mensah, F. Modelling the effect of environmental disturbance on community structure and diversity of wetland vegetation in Northern Region of Ghana. Aquat. Ecol. 53 (2019), 119-136. Doi: 10.1007/s10452-019-09677-5

O’Hare, M.T., Aguiar, F.C., et. al. Plants in aquatic ecosystems: current trends and future directions. Springer International Publishing. Switzerland (2016). DOI:10.1007/s10750-017-3190-7

Pasion, B.O, Barrias, C.D.P., Asuncion, M.P., Angadol, A.H., Pabiling, R.R., Pasion, A., Braulio, A.A, Baysa, A.M. Assessing tree diversity and carbon density of a riparian zone within a protected area in Southern Philippines. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity. Volume 4, Issue 1 (2021). Pp.78-86.

Rosso, J.J.; Fernández Cirelli, A. Effects of land use on environmental conditions and macrophytes in prairie lotic ecosystems. Limnologica 2013, 43, 18–26.

Sufia et al. A topology of residents based on preferences for sustainable riparian settlement in Palembang, Indonesia. MATEC Web of Conferences (2019).

Svitok, M.; Hrivnák, R.; Kochjarová, J.; Ot’ahel’ová, H.; Pal’ove-Balang, P. Environmental thresholds and predictors of macrophyte species richness in aquatic habitats in central Europe. Folia Geobot. 2016, 51, 227–238.

Viciani, D.; Vidali, M.; Gigante, D.; Bolpagni, R.; Villani, M.; Acosta, A.T.R.; Adorni, M.; Aleffi, M.; Allegrezza, M.; Angiolini, C.; et al. A first checklist of the alien-dominated vegetation in Italy. Plant Sociol. 2020, 57, 29–54.

Wheater CP, Bell JR, Cook PA. Practical field ecology: a project guide. London: Wiley; 2011

Xiaolong et al. Diversity of the riparian vegetation of lower Agusan River towards establishing the sag0-based eco belt for disaster risk reduction. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences. Volume 10, Issue (4) (2020) .70-80. ISSN: 2220-6663 (Print) 2222-3045 (Online)

Zelnik, I.; Kuhar, U.; Holcar, M.; Germ, M.; Gaberš?cik, A. Distribution of vascular plant communities in Slovenian watercourses. Water 2021, 13, 1071.




How to Cite

Jeffry M. Saro, Kimberly B. Pascual, Deven P. Coquilla, & Mary Joy P. Araneta. (2022). Aquatic Macrophytes Composition and Diversity in Selected Sites of Lumbocan River, Butuan City, Agusan del Norte, Philippines. American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 89(1), 1–14. Retrieved from