A Review of TCP Congestion Control Using Artificial Intelligence in 4G and 5G Networks


  • Maab Fathi Hamzah Department of Information and Communication Engineering College, University of Baghdad, Iraq
  • Omar Ali Athab Department of Information and Communication Engineering College, University of Baghdad, Iraq


5G, 4G, Congestion Control (CC), Artificial Intelligent (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Deep Learning (DL)


In recent years, the field of research around the congestion problem of 4G and 5G networks has grown, especially those based on artificial intelligence (AI). Although 4G with LTE is seen as a mature technology, there is a continuous improvement in the infrastructure that led to the emergence of 5G networks. As a result of the large services provided in industries, Internet of Things (IoT) applications and smart cities, which have a large amount of exchanged data, a large number of connected devices per area, and high data rates, have brought their own problems and challenges, especially the problem of congestion. In this context, artificial intelligence (AI) models can be considered as one of the main techniques that can be used to solve network congestion problems. Since AI technologies are able to extract relevant features from data and deal with huge amounts of data, the integration of communication networks with AI to solve the congestion problem appears promising, and the research requires exploration. This paper provides a review of how AI technologies can be used to solve the congestion problem in 4G and 5G networks. We examined previous studies addressing the problem of congestion in networks, such as congestion prediction, congestion control, congestion avoidance, and TCP development for congestion control. Finally, we discuss the future vision of using AI technologies in 4G and 5G networks to solve congestion problems and identify research issues that need further study.


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