Black holes formations and dark fabric distortions

  • Sabir Sadiq Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq
  • Anuar Alias School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia-UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Keywords: Black holes formation, Gravity, Dark Fabric Distortions, Escape Velocity

Abstract

In this work, we attempt to construct some novel solutions of a gravity mystery with several theories for a Gravitation namely: Newton's Theory of Gravitation, Einstein's Theory of the Gravitation, Dark Matter and Dark Energy Theory, Braneworld Gravity, Quantum Gravity, and the Cosmic Fabric Gravitation Theory. For this purpose, we use some mathematical equations, and MATLAB Program to draw the shape of a gravity as a dark fabric distortions in a three dimensions. In the investigation, showing the discrepancies between the solutions of Gravitation mystery which obtained in past theories, and the new solutions of a gravity obtained by using different methods in present time by using the technology and modify the concept of a gravity. Furthermore, the Cosmic Fabric Gravity draws the Geometry of a Gravitation to a better understanding of the characteristics of a Gravitation in the present research work. The Gravity is acting directly on the Formation, Structure, and Evolution of a different types of the celestial objects. Dark Fabric was curved and distorted differently under the stress of a Planet, Stars, and Black holes.

References

LeBlanc, Francis. (2010). An Introduction to Stellar Astrophysics. Université de Moncton, Canada. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470699560(pbk.).

Markus J Aschwanden.(2005). Physics of the Solar Corona An Introduction with Problems and Solutions. ISBN 3-540-30765-6 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York.

Wald, R. M. (1997). "Gravitational Collapse and Cosmic Censorship". In Iyer, B. R.; Bhawal, B. (eds.). Black Holes, Gravitational Radiation and the Universe. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 69–86. arXiv:gr-qc/9710068. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-0934-7. ISBN 978-9401709347.

Overbye, Dennis (8 June 2015). "Black Hole Hunters". NASA. Archived from the original on 9 June 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2015.

Hamilton, A. "Journey into a Schwarzschild black hole". jila.colorado.edu. Retrieved 28 June 2020.

Isaac Asimov. 1977. The Collapsing Universe, The Story of Black holes. New York: USA Pub.

Schutz, Bernard F. (2003). Gravity from the ground up. Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-521-45506-0. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016.

Davies, P. C. W. (1978). "Thermodynamics of Black Holes" (PDF). Reports on Progress in Physics. 41 (8): 1313–1355. Bibcode:1978RPPh...41.1313D. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/41/8/004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2013.

Montgomery, Colin; Orchiston, Wayne; Whittingham, Ian (2009). "Michell, Laplace and the origin of the black hole concept". Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. 12 (2): 90–96. Bibcode:2009JAHH...12...90M.

Webster, B. Louise; Murdin, Paul (1972), "Cygnus X-1—a Spectroscopic Binary with a Heavy Companion?", Nature, 235 (5332): 37–38, Bibcode:1972Natur.235...37W, doi:10.1038/235037a0, S2CID 4195462

Bolton, C. T. (1972), "Identification of Cygnus X-1 with HDE 226868", Nature, 235 (5336): 271–273, Bibcode:1972Natur.235..271B, doi:10.1038/235271b0, S2CID 4222070

Clery D (2020). "Black holes caught in the act of swallowing stars". Science. 367 (6477): 495. Bibcode:2020Sci...367..495C. doi:10.1126/science.367.6477.495. PMID 32001633. S2CID 210984462.

Bruce McClure (31 July 2018). "How far is a light-year?". EarthSky. Retrieved 15 October 2019.

Heger, A.; Fryer, C.L.; Woosley, S.E.; Langer, N.; Hartmann, D.H. (2003). "How massive single stars end their life". Astrophysical Journal. 591 (1): 288–300. arXiv:astro-ph/0212469. Bibcode:2003ApJ...591..288H. doi:10.1086/375341. S2CID 59065632.

Proposition 75, Theorem 35: p. 956 – I.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, translators: Isaac Newton, The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia, by I.Bernard Cohen. University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4.

Andrew, J. S. & Hamilton. 2020. General Relativity, Black Holes, Cosmology.

Ma, T. and Wang, S. (2014b). Gravitational field equations and theory of dark matter and dark energy. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems, Ser. A, 34:2:335–366; see also arXiv:1206.5078v2.

Marco, H, Tian MA, And Shouhong Wang. 2014. Theory Of Dark Energy And Dark Matter. The work was supported in part by: USA & Chinese National Science Foundations.

Kuijken, K.; Gilmore, G. (July 1989). "The Mass Distribution in the Galactic Disc – Part III – the Local Volume Mass Density". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 239 (2): 651–664. Bibcode:1989MNRAS.239..651K. doi:10.1093/mnras/239.2.651.

Kallosh, R.E., “Supergravity, M theory and Cosmology”, arXiv e-print, (2002). [hep-th/0205315]. (Cited on page 7.)

Rovelli, Carlo (2008). "Quantum gravity". Scholarpedia. 3 (5): 7117. Bibcode:2008SchpJ...3.7117R. doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.7117.

Nadis, Steve (2 December 2019). "Black Hole Singularities Are as Inescapable as Expected". quantamagazine.org. Quanta Magazine. Retrieved 22 April 2020.

Woolfson, M. (2000). "The origin and evolution of the solar system" (PDF). Astronomy & Geophysics. 41 (1): 12. Bibcode:2000A&G....41a..12W. doi:10.1046/j.1468-4004.2000.00012.x. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.

Thierry Montmerle; Jean-Charles Augereau; Marc Chaussidon (2006). "Solar System Formation and Early Evolution: the First 100 Million Years". Earth, Moon, and Planets. Springer. 98 (1–4): 39–95. Bibcode:2006EM&P...98...39M. doi:10.1007/s11038-006-9087-5. S2CID 120504344.

A. P. Boss; R. H. Durisen (2005). "Chondrule-forming Shock Fronts in the Solar Nebula: A Possible Unified Scenario for Planet and Chondrite Formation". The Astrophysical Journal. 621 (2): L137–L140. arXiv:astro-ph/0501592. Bibcode:2005ApJ...621L.137B. doi:10.1086/429160. S2CID 15244154.

Johnson, J. (2007). "Extreme stars: White dwarfs & neutron stars" (Lecture notes). Astronomy 162. Ohio State University. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2011.

Published
2022-04-18
Section
Articles