Optimum Conditions for the Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solution Using Paw-paw Trunk Activated Carbon


  • N. U. Udeh Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers, Nigeria
  • B. L. James


Adsorption, pawpaw trunk activated carbon, chemical activation, lead, optimum conditions


The study investigated the optimum conditions for the removal of lead from aqueous solution using chemically activated pawpaw trunk (UPTAC) with ZnCl2. The design of experiment (DoE) was based on three variables, contact time, adsorbate concentration and adsorbate pH, and a total of 27 experimental runs were used to study the effects of the parameters using the response surface methodology (RSM). Batch adsorption studies on the effects of adsorbent dosage, initial adsorbate concentration, contact time and adsorbate pH were used as variables to obtain the optimum conditions. Results showed that the amount of leads adsorbed was found to vary with adsorbent doses, initial adsorbate concentration, stirring time and adsorbate pH. However, the rate of lead removal increased with smaller adsorbent dosage while the amount adsorbed per unit mass increased with increase in initial lead concentrations. Generally, UPTAC achieved optimum % removal of 99.51% at initial lead concentration of 50mg/l and its removal was pH dependent (pH 6) tending towards neutral. Also, there was increase in adsorption of lead ions with increase in stirring time due to increase in kinetic energy of the metal and UPTAC attained equilibrium in 60mins. Thus, UPTAC could effectively remove lead from aqueous medium using the above optimum conditions.


P.W.W. Kirk and J.N. Lester. “Significance and Behavior of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment Process”. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 30, pp. 1-44, September, 1983.

Y. Orhan Ardali. “The Removal of Heavy Metals from Plating Wastewater”. M. Sc Thesis, Ondokuz Mayis University, Sam Sun, 1990.

D.F. Aloko, and G. A. Adebayo. “Production and characterization of Activated Carbon from Agricultural Waste (Rice Husk and Corn-Cob)”, Journal of Engineering and Applied Science. Vol. 2, pp. 440 -444, 2007.

S. E. Uwadiae, Y. Yerima and R.U. Azike. “A Comparative Study of Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions by Granular Activated carbon from Coconut Shell, Sawdust and Groundnut shell”. Journal of Science and Multidisciplinary Research, Vol 2, pp. 127 – 134, September, 2010.

S. Idris, Y.A. Iyaka, B.E.N. Dauda, M.M. Ndamitso, and M.T. Umar. “Kinetic Study of Utilizing Groundnut Shell as an Adsorbent in Removing Chromium and Nickel from Dye Effluent”. American Chemical Science Journal, Vol 2, pp. 12 – 24, March, 2012.

J. N. Egila, B.E.N. Dauda, Y.A. Iyaka and T. Jimoh. “Agricultural Waste as a Low-Cost Adsorbent for Heavy Metal Removal from Wastewater”. International Journal of Physical Science, Vol 6, pp. 2152 – 2157, April, 2011.

T.K. Naiya, A.K. Bhattacharya, and S.K. Das. “Adsorption of Cd (II) and Pb (II) from Aqueous Solutions on Activated Alumina”, Journal of Colloid Interface Science. Vol 333; pp. 14–26. February, 2009.

M.M. Rao, G.P. Rao, K. Seshaiah, N.V. Choudary and M.C. Wang. “Activated Carbon from Ceiba Pentandra Hulls, an Agricultural Waste, as an Adsorbent in the Removal of Lead and Zinc from Aqueous Solutions, Waste Management, Vol. 28, pp. 849–858, February, 2008.

R.Rajbhandari. “Optimization of Condition for the Preparation of Activated Carbon from Lapsi (Choerospondias Axillaries) Seed Stone using ZnCl2. Journal of the Institute of Engineering, Vol. 11, pp. 128-139, March 2016.

I. Osu Charles and S.A. Odoemelam. “Studies on Adsorbent Dosage, Particle Sizes and pH Constraints on Biosorption of Pb (II) and Cd (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution using Modified and Unmodified Crasstrotrea Gasar (Bivalve) Biomass” International Archive of Applied Science and Technology, Vol. 1, pp. 62-68, June, 2010.

M. Teker and M. Imamoglu, “Adsorption of Copper and Cadmium Ions by Activated Carbon from Rice Hulls”. Turkey Journal of Chemistry. Vol 23, pp. 185 – 191. January, 1999.

A. Saeed, M. Waheed Akhter and M. Igbal, “Removal and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution using Papaya Wood as a New Biosorbent”. Separation and Purification Technology, Vol.45, pp. 25-31, September, 2005.

S. Reagaraj, K.H. Yeon and S.H. Moon. “Removal of Chromium from Water and Waste by Ion Exchange Resins”. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol.7, pp. 273-287. October, 2001.

S. Ong, S. Vip, P. Keny, S. Lu and Y. Hunt. “Papaya (Carica Papaya) Seed as a Low-Cost Sorbent for Zinc Removal”. African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 7, pp. 810-819. May, 2012.

J. Shanthi and V.M. Selvarajan, “Removal of Cr (V) and Cu (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon prepared from Henna Leaves”. Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 2013, pp. 1-6. October, 2012.

N.U. Udeh and J.C. Agunwamba. “Removal of Heavy Metal from Aqueous Solution using Bamboo Based Activated Carbon”. International Journal of Engineering Inventions, Vol, 6, pp. 01-12. February, 2017

J.M. Okuo and A. Ozioko. “Adsorption of Lead and Mercury Ions on Chemically Treated Periwinkle Shells”. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, Vol. 26, pp. 60-65. 2001.

M.M. Aji, B. Gutti and B.K. Highina. “Production and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Groundnut Shell and its Application in Water Treatment. University of Maiduguri, Faculty of Engineering Seminar Series, Vol. 8, pp. 91-98. March, 2017.




How to Cite

N. U. Udeh, & B. L. James. (2022). Optimum Conditions for the Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solution Using Paw-paw Trunk Activated Carbon. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 87(1), 1–8. Retrieved from https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/7298