Production and Characterization of Paw-paw Trunk Activated Carbon
AbstractLow-cost adsorbents were prepared from matured Pawpaw trunk by chemical activation method using ZnCl2 at various impregnation ratios of 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 (ZnCl2/pawpaw). Unwashed Pawpaw Trunk activated Carbon (UPTAC) and Raw Pawpaw Trunk carbon (Raw PTC) (not impregnated) were all carbonized at 400oC for one hour. The produced carbons were characterized in terms of surface area, porosity, bulk density, ash content, moisture content, iodine number and carbon yield. Proximate analysis was also conducted using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to detect the surface morphology and Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) to identify the kind of functional groups present on the activated carbon. The results showed that surface area, bulk density, porosity, iodine number, moisture content and carbon yield of UPTAC decreased significantly with increase in impregnation ratio with ratio 1:2 having the highest surface area of 1575m2/g, porosity of 0.89, carbon yield of 69%, bulk density of 0.68g/cm3 and iodine number of 231.1mg/g while Raw PTC had the lowest surface area of 652m2/g. The results of the SEM micrograph showed that UPTAC has a well-developed porous surface with different pores diameter than the Raw PTC indicating the impact of chemical activation in creating well-developed pores. Furthermore, the results of the FTIR transmittance spectra showed several peaks belonging to different functional groups including O-H group in either alcohol, phenol or carboxylic acid; R-OH group and C≡C stretching of the alkynes; weak C=O stretching of the carboxylic groups and the twisted region. Comparing the FTIR transmittance spectra of Raw PTC to UPTAC, showed a clear shift in band indicating the effect of ZnCl2 activation and this shows that UPTAC may be very useful in adsorption processes.
D. Qu. “Studies of the Activated Carbons used in Double-Layer Supercapacitors”. Journal of Power Source, vol. 109, pp. 403- 411, July, 2002.
G. J. McDougall, R. D. Hancock, M. J. Nicol, O. L. Wellington, R. G. Cowperthwaite. “The Mechanism of the Adsorption of Gold Cyanide on Activated Carbon”. Journal of Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 80, pp. 344–356, Sept. 1980.
S. B. Olugbenga, A. A. Kayode, A. I. Adejumoke and O. D. Adewumi. “Preparation and Characterization of Modified Adsorbents Derived from Pawpaw (Carica Papaya) Leaf”. International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, vol 96, Jan. 2016.
J. N. Egila, B. E. N. Dauda, Y. A. Iyaka and T. Jimoh. “Agricultural Waste as a Low-Cost Adsorbent for Heavy Metal Removal from Wastewater”. International Journal of the Physical Science, vol. 6, pp. 2152-2157, April, 2011.
N. A. Hadi, N. A. Rohaizar, and W.C. Sien. “Removal of Cu (II) from Water by Adsorption on Papaya Seed”. Asian Transactions on Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 49 – 55, 2011.
W. E. Igwegbe, B. C. Okoro and J. C. Osuagwu. “Use of Carica Papaya as a Bio-Sorbent for Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater”. Environmental Geosciences, vol. 9, pp. 1329-1333, Nov. 2015.
N. U. Udeh, and J.C. Agunwamba. “Optimum Conditions for the Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solution with Bamboo Activated Carbon”. The International Journal of Engineering & Science, vol. 5, pp. 08-12, Sept. 2016.
J. C. Agunwamba, U. C. Ugochukwu and E. K. Imadifon. “Activated Carbon from Maize Cob Part I: Removal of Lead”. International Journal of Engineering Science & Technology, vol 2, pp. 5-13, 2002a.
F. T. Ademiluyi, S. A. Amadi, Amakama, and J. Nimisingha. “Adsorption and Treatment of Organic Contaminants using Activated Carbon from Waste Nigeria Bamboo”, Journal of Applied Sciences & Environmental Management, vol. 13, pp. 39-47, June, 2010.
M. Danish, T. Ahmad. “A Review on Utilization of Wood Biomass as a Sustainable Precursor for Activated Carbon Production and Application”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 87, pp. 1-21, May 2018.
R. Zakaria, N. A. Jamalluddin, M. Z. Abu Bakar. “Effect of Impregnation Ratio and Activation Temperature on the Yield and Adsorption Performance of Mangrove Based Activated Carbon for Methylene Blue Removal”. Results in Materials, vol. 10, pp. 1-11, June, 2021.
M. A. Ahmad and R. Alrozi. “Optimization of Preparation Conditions for Mangosteen Peel Based Activated Carbons for the Removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue R using Response Surface Methodology”. Chemical Engineering Journal, vol, 165, pp. 883-890, Dec. 2010.
L. Giraldo and C. M. Moreno-Piraja´n. “Synthesis of Activated Carbon Mesoporous from Coffee Waste and its Application in Adsorption of Zinc and Mercury Ions from Aqueous Solution”. Journal of Chemistry, vol. 9, pp. 938–948, Mar. 2012.
P. Ricou-Hoeffer, I. Lecuyer and P. L. Cloirec. “Experimental Design Methodology Applied to Adsorption of Metallic Ions onto Fly Ash”. Water Research, vol. 35, pp. 965-976, April 2001.
A. K. Sanusi, B. A. Umar and I. M. Sani. “Evaluation of the Application of Carica Papaya Seed Modified Feldspar Clay for Adsorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in Aqueous Media Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies”. Journal of Environmental Analytical Toxicology, vol. 2, pp. 1-9, Feb. 2016.
B. H. Hameed and F. B. M. Daud. “Adsorption Studies of Basic Dye on Activated Carbon Derived from Agricultural Waste: Hevea Brasiliense Seed Coat”. Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 139, pp. 48-55, May 2008.
O. A. Ekepete, A. C. Marcus, and V. Osi. “Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon obtained from Plantain Fruit Stem. Hundawi”. Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2017, pp. 1-6, Mar. 2017.
F. E. Okieimen, C. O. Okiemen, and R. A. Wuana. “Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Rice Husks”. Journal of the Chemical Society, vol. 32, pp. 126-136, Jan. 2007.
Copyright (c) 2022 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.