Architecture and Infectious Diseases: Setting-up a Multipurpose Isolation Facility in Nigerian Hospitals


  • Nurudeen Shehu Barau B.Tech(Arch), M.Tech.(Arch), Ph.D. in-view(Arch), Department of Architecture, ATBU, Bauchi and P.M.B 0248, Nigeria
  • Ibrahim U. Hussaini B.Sc.(Arch), M.Sc.(Arch), Ph.D. (Arch), Department of Architecture, ATBU, Bauchi and P.M.B 0248, Nigeria
  • Usman Bukar Wakawa B.Tech(Arch),M.Tech.(Arch), Ph.D.(Arch)Department of Architecture, ATBU, Bauchi and P.M.B 0248, Nigeria


Architecture, Infectious Diseases, Multipurpose, Isolation, Facility, Nigeria Hospitals


The high and continuous spread of infectious disease such as Corona virus (COVID-19) has affected public health globally. The preparedness of hospitals in the face of this situation is a problem in the Nigerian context, hospitals were faced with the problems of lack of viral containment spaces to isolate suspected cases and treat the infected patients. This research aims at exploring the design requirements and configurations of a multipurpose infectious disease isolation centre in Nigerian hospitals with a view to develop a framework for setting-up of infectious disease isolation facility in Nigerian hospitals. The research objectives are as follows: (1) To identify the functional spaces in isolation centres of Nigerian hospitals, (2) To determine the principles of configuration and design considerations in setting up of isolation centres in Nigerian hospitals and (3) To develop a framework or a model for the setting-up of IDIC in Nigerian hospitals. The above objectives were achieved through the employment of a qualitative research approach. An in-depth interview was conducted, the data was analysed using the thematic coding analysis. Results from qualitative analysis were reported in tables and narrative report, content analysis was also conducted. The result of the analysis reveals that an isolation centre should be zoned into four parts, namely: (1) Triage, (2) Green zone (safe zone), (3) Yellow zone (Semi-safe) and (4) Red zone (danger zone). The suspect bay should be in single rooms and that no more than one suspected patient should be in the same room. There is need for a molecular laboratory in the facility. There is need for negative pressure rooms for respiratory infections. The use of high efficiency particulate Air-condition (HEPA) is necessary for decontamination of indoor air before discharge. There is also a need for large open space to cater for watery diseases like cholera.


. Organization, W. H. (2020). Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations: scientific brief, 27 March 2020. Retrieved from

. Emmanuel, U., Osondu, E. D., & Kalu, K. C. (2020). Architectural design strategies for infection prevention and control (IPC) in health-care facilities: towards curbing the spread of Covid-19. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 1-9.

. Dobson, Phillip,Love, Peter (2004). Realist and postmodernist perspectives on information systems research: points of connection, Australasian Journal of Information Systems, vol. 12, issue 1

. Guan, Y., Ramesh, A., & Memarzadeh, F. (2014). The Effects of Patient Movement on Particles Dispersed by Coughing in an Indoor Environment. Applied Biosafety, 19(4), 172-183.

. Fahmi, I. (2019). World Health Organization coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) situation report. DroneEmprit.

. Nigerian centre for disease control (NCDC) “Update on Covid-19 Cases in Nigeria” (July 31, 2021)

. Oniani, D., & Wang, Y. (2020). A qualitative evaluation of language models on automatic question-answering for covid-19. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 11th ACM International Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Health Informatics.

. Smith, P. W., Anderson, A. O., Christopher, G. W., Cieslak, T. J., Devreede, G., Fosdick, G. A., . . . Huebner, K. D. (2006). Designing a biocontainment unit to care for patients with serious communicable diseases: a consensus statement. Biosecurity and bioterrorism: biodefense strategy, practice, and science, 4(4), 351-365.

. Tang, J. W., Wilson, P., Shetty, N., & Noakes, C. J. (2015). Aerosol-transmitted infections—a new consideration for public health and infection control teams. Current treatment options in infectious diseases, 7(3), 176-201.

. Queenan, J. T., Spong, C. Y., & Lockwood, C. J. (2015). Protocols for high-risk pregnancies: an evidence-based approach: John Wiley & Sons.

. De Vaus, D. (2001). The context of design. Research design in social research, 279.

. Manzano, A. (2016). The craft of interviewing in realist evaluation. Evaluation, 22(3), 342-360.

. Farrell, P. (2016). Writing built environment dissertations and projects: practical guidance and examples: John Wiley & Sons.




How to Cite

Nurudeen Shehu Barau, Ibrahim U. Hussaini, & Usman Bukar Wakawa. (2021). Architecture and Infectious Diseases: Setting-up a Multipurpose Isolation Facility in Nigerian Hospitals. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 84(1), 27–49. Retrieved from