Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Infections in Hostel Residents of Lahore, Pakistan
AbstractTo maintain our good health, properly functioning gastrointestinal (GIT) track is always considered essential. Though in current era, living standards are much improved now but still gut infections are frequently reported around the globe. Because in third world countries, like Pakistan even in big cities people don’t have dietary sources of good quality. That’s why; a survey of randomly selected 10 hostels was conducted to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections among them. The results showed that mostly sufferers fall in age group of 18-28years and among them, females are more than males. Important causative factors for transmission of enteric pathogens are intake of impure water (in 42% cases), unhygienic food (in 18% cases) and blend of these two (in 33% cases) with major symptoms of abdominal discomfort, acid reflux, nausea and vomiting. But still only 19% gastric patients of hostel take proper medication for cure and rest of other are left untreated either due to lack of awareness or financial constraints. So these issues should be seriously addressed by the authorities to control the frequency of GIT infections among hostilities of Lahore, Pakistan.
. J. Gagnière, J. Raisch, J. Veziant, N. Barnich, R. Bonnet, E. Buc, M. A. Bringer, D. Pezet and M. Bonnet. ‘‘Gut microbiota imbalance and colorectal cancer’’. World J Gastroenterol, vol. 22, pp. 501–18. 2016.
. G. den Besten, K. van Eunen, A. K. Groen, K. Venema, D. J. Reijngoud and B.M. Bakker. ‘‘The role of short-chain fatty acids in the interplay between diet, gut microbiota and host energy metabolism’’. J Lipid research, vol. 54(9), pp. 2325-40. 2013.
. S. Tarashi, S.A. Badi, A. Moshiri, M. Nasehi, A. Fateh, F. Vaziri and S.D. Siadat. ‘‘The human microbiota in pulmonary tuberculosis: Not so innocent bystanders’’. Tuberculosis, vol. 113, pp. 215-21. 2018.
. A.K. Berger and B.A. Mainou. ‘‘Interactions between enteric bacteria and eukaryotic viruses impact the outcome of infection’’. Viruses, vol. 10(1), pp.19. 2018
. B. Henriques-Normark and E.I. Tuomanen. ‘‘The pneumococcus: epidemiology, microbiology and pathogenesis’’. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, vol. 3(7), pp. a010215. 2013.
. M. Kosek, C. Bern and R.L. Guerrant. ‘‘The global burden of diarrheal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000’’. Bulletin of the world health organization, vol.81, pp. 197-204. 2003.
. T. Wardlaw, P. Salama, C. Brocklehurst, M. Chopra and E. Mason. ‘‘Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done’’. The lancet, vol. 375(9718), pp. 870-2. 2010.
. G. Keusch, O. Fontaine, A. Bhargava, C. Boschi-Pinto, Z.A. Bhutta and .E Gotuzzo. ‘‘Diarrhoeal Diseases’’. 2006.
. UNICEF/WHO. ‘‘Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done’’. UNICEF/WHO joint report on preventing and treating the second leading killer of children. 2009.
. R. H. Schmidt, R. M. Goodrich, D. L. Archer and K. R. Schneider. ‘‘General overview of the causative agents of foodborne illness’’. Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida. 2003.
. M. C. Georges, I. K. Wachsmuth, D. M. V. Meunier and N. Nebout. ‘‘Parasitic, bacterial and viral enteric pathogens associated with diarrhoea in Central African Republic’’. J. Clin. Microbiol., vol. 19, pp. 571-5. 1984.
. M. Kosek, C. Bern and R. Guerrant. ‘‘The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000’’. Bull World Health Organ, vol. 81, pp. 197-204. 2003.
. V. Mehraj, J. Hatcher, S. Akhtar, G. Rafique and M.A .Beg. ‘‘Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among children in an urban slum of Karachi’’. PloS one, vol. 3(11) pp. e3680. 2008.
. M.N. Wyss, R. Steffen, N.Y. Dhupdale, S. Thitiphuree and M. Mutsch. ‘‘Management of travelers’ diarrhea by local physicians in tropical and subtropical countries—a questionnaire survey’’. Journal of travel medicine, vol. 16(3), pp.186-90. 2009.
. Z.D. Jiang, B. Lowe, M.P. Verenkar, D. Ashley, R. Steffen, N. Tornieporth, F. von Sonnenburg, P. Waiyaki and H.L. DuPont. ‘‘Prevalence of enteric pathogens among international travelers with diarrhea acquired in Kenya (Mombasa), India (Goa), or Jamaica (Montego Bay)’’. The Journal of infectious diseases, vol. 185(4), pp. 497-502. 2002.
. M. Woś and K. Korzeniewski. ‘‘The older traveller’’. International maritime health, vol. 69(4), pp. 285-96. 2018.
. K. Vilkman, S.H. Pakkanen, T. Lääveri, H. Siikamäki and A. Kantele. ‘‘Travelers’ health problems and behavior: prospective study with post-travel follow-up’’. BMC infectious diseases, vol. 16(1), pp. 1-4. 2016.
. A. Kantele, T. Laaveri, S. Mero, K. Vilkman, S.H. Pakkanen, J. Ollgren, et al. ‘‘Antimicrobials increase travelers' risk of colonization by extended-spectrum betalactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae’’. Clin. Infect Dis., vol. 60(6), pp. 837–46. 2015.
. Z. Greenwood, J. Black, L. Weld, D. O’Brien, K. Leder, F. V. Sonnenburg, P. Pandey, E. Schwartz, B.A. Connor, G. Brown and D.O. Freedman. ‘‘Gastrointestinal infection among international travelers globally’’. Journal of travel medicine, vol. 15(4), pp. 221-8. 2008.
. R. Pitzurra, R. Steffen, A. Tschopp and M. Mutsch. ‘‘Diarrhea in a large prospective cohort of European travellers to resource-limited destinations’’. BMC infectious diseases, vol. 10(1), pp.1-9. 2010.
. L. Chacin-Bonilla. ‘‘Intestinal parasitic diseases as a global health problem’’. Investigation clinical, vol. 54(1), pp. 1-4. 2013.
. G. Stepek, D. J. Buttle, I. R. Duce, J. M. Behnke. ‘‘Human gastrointestinal nematode infections: are new control methods required?’’ Int. J. Exp. parasitol., vol. 87, pp. 325–341. 2006.
. M. Kozak and H.P. Piepho. ‘‘what’s normal anyway? Residual plots are more telling than significance tests when checking ANOVA assumptions’’. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, vol. 204(1), pp. 86-98. 2018.
. A. Javed, H.I. Hashmi, A. Shahid, S. Mehmood and S. Khurshid. ‘‘Survey of Hypocalcaemia Frequency in District Lahore, Pakistan’’. American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, vol. 80(1), pp. 101-6. 2021.
. A. Javed and A. Kabeer. ‘‘Enhancing Waterborne Diseases in Pakistan & Their Possible Control’’. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, vol. 49(1), pp. 248-56. 2018.
. A. Javed. ‘‘Food borne health issues and their relevance to Pakistani Society’’. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, vol. 26(4), pp. 235-51. 2016.
. A. Javed, S.M. Haider, N. Akram and M. Usman. ‘‘Epidemiology of onychomycosis in Gujranwala division-Pakistan’’. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, vol. 58(1), pp. 113-7. 2019.
Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.