Influence of Socio-demographic Variables on Prevalence of Hypertension in Lahore Division, Pakistan

  • Anam Javed Assistant Professor, School of Zoology, Minhaj University, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Sufyan Saleem BS Researcher, School of Zoology, Minhaj University, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Muniza Saeed BS Researcher, School of Zoology, Minhaj University, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Hamid Raza BS Researcher, School of Zoology, Minhaj University, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Bilal Shahid Lecturer, School of Zoology, Minhaj University, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Kinza Islam BS Researcher, School of Zoology, Minhaj University, Lahore, Pakistan.
Keywords: Hypertension, cardiovascular, socio-demographic, Lahore, cross section survey

Abstract

Hypertension is a growing public health issue at global level and it is considered as a potent factor for cardiovascular ailments. But various socio-demographic factors are root causes to provoke this physiological disorder. In current study, through cross sectional survey, performa based data of 100 persons was collected from cities Lahore division, Pakistan. The results showed that males are more suffering than females and fall in age range of 20-40yrs. Most frequently reported initial symptoms are fatigue, irregular heartbeat and difficulty in breathing. Whereas district wise comparison indicated higher prevalence level in Lahore and Kasur than Shiekhupura and Nankana Sahib.   Similarly, ANOVA results highlighted that economic status matters the most, parallel to the extent of awareness among masses, that’s why; mediocre is suffering more than upper or lower class. Thus cost effective treatments based findings should be our future goal to control this growing disease.

References

. J. Wang, W. Sun, G. A. Wells, Z. Li, T. Li, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Li, Y. Yu and Y. Liu. “Differences in prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in urban and rural residents of the northeastern region of the People’s Republic of China.” A cross-sectional study. PLOS One, vol. 13(4), pp. 0195340. 2018.

. J. Wei, X. Yin, Q. Liu, L. Tan and C. Jia. "Association between hypertension and cognitive function: A cross‐sectional study in people over 45 years old in China." The journal of clinical hypertension, vol. 20 (11), pp. 1575-1583. 2018.

. S. Mehata and R. K. Mehta. "A6178 Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Nepal: data from nationally representative population-based cross-sectional study." Journal of hypertension, vol. 36, pp. 304. 2018.

. K. Alam, G. J. Hankey and GBD 2016 risk factors collaborators. "Global, regional and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016." Lancet, vol. 390 (10100), pp. 1345-1422. 2017.

. M. H. Forouzanfar, P. Liu, G. A. Roth, M. Ng, S. Biryukov, L. Marczak, L. Alexander, K. Estep, K. H. Abate, T. F. Akinyemiju and R. Ali. “Global burden of hypertension and systolic blood pressure of at least 110 to 115 mm Hg, 1990-2015.” Jama, vol. 317(2), pp. 165-182. 2017.

. K. T. Mills, J. D. Bundy, T. N. Kelly, J. E. Reed, P. M. Kearney, K. Reynolds, J. Chen and J. He. "Global disparities of hypertension prevalence and control, a systematic analysis of population-based studies from 90 countries." Circulation, vol. 134(6), pp. 441-450. 2016.

. Prospective studies collaboration. “Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies’’. The Lancet, vol. 360(9349), pp.1903-1913. 2002.

. P. K. Whelton and R.M. Carey. “The 2017 clinical practice guideline for high blood pressure’’. Jama, vol. 318(21), pp.2073-2074. 2017.

. P. Muntner, R. M. Carey, S. Gidding, D. W. Jones, S. J. Taler, J. T. Wright Jr, and P. K. Whelton. "Potential US population impact of the 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guideline." Circulation, vol. 137(2), 109-118. 2018.

. R. M. Carey and P.K. Whelton. “Prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults, synopsis of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Hypertension Guideline.” Annals of internal medicine, vol. 168(5), pp. 351-358. 2018.

. A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger, E. J. Benjamin, J. D. Berry, M. J. Blaha, S. Dai, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, S. Franco and H. J. Fullerton. “Heart disease and stroke statistics 2014 update a report from the American Heart Association.” Circulation, vol. 129(3), pp. e28-e292. 2014.

. K. Mirza, A. A. Khan, M. M. Ali and S. Chaudhry. "Oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices and sources of information for diabetic patients in Lahore, Pakistan." Diabetes care, vol. 30(12), pp. 3046-3047. 2007.

. N. Shah, Q. Shah and A. J. Shah. "The burden and high prevalence of hypertension in Pakistani adolescents: a meta-analysis of the published studies." Archives of public health, vol. 76(1), pp. 1-10. 2018

. S. Naseem, H. Sarwar, M. Afzal, S. A. Gilani. Knowledge attitude and practice towards hypertension among adult population in a rural area of Lahore, Pakistan. International journal of scientific & engineering research, vol. 9 (5), pp.1674-79. 2018.

. A. Javed, H. I. Hashmi, A. Shahid, S. Mehmood & S. Khurshid. “Survey of Hypocalcaemia Frequency in District Lahore, Pakistan”. American scientific research journal for engineering, technology, and sciences, vol. 80(1), pp. 101-106. 2021.

. A. Javed and A. Kabeer. “Food borne health issues and their relevance to Pakistani Society”. American scientific research journal for engineering, technology, and sciences, vol. 26 (4), pp. 235-51. 2016.

. L. Hertati, M. Widiyanti, D. Desfitrina, A. Syafarudin and O. Safkaur. “The effects of economic crisis on business finance”. International journal of economics and financial issues, vol. 10 (3), pp. 236. 2020.

Published
2021-09-13
Section
Articles