Scaling Up Manufacturing of Edible Coatings for Food


  • Sanaa M. Ali Food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture research center, Egypt
  • Manal A. Sorour Food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture research center, Egypt
  • Magdy A. Wassel Faculty of Science, Chemistry Dept., Al-Azhar University
  • M. I. Ayad Faculty of Science, chemistry Dept., Monofia University


Scale-up, Mixing process, Economic pipe diameter, Rheology, Edible coating


One of the most important methods for prolonging the shelf life of fruits and vegetables is edible coatings. The manufacture of the edible coating was tested in the laboratory before being scaled up to the industrial scale which is a procedure for applying, which applies the same process to different output volumes. One of the most crucial processes in the manufacturing of edible coatings is mixing. The equipment needed to scale up the production of edible solutions for food coating was also assessed. The results of the measurements revealed that scaling up mixing is based upon constant power/volume, equal blend duration, and adjusting the impeller/tank (D/T) diameter ratio was possible. A four-blade impeller was utilized to homogenize 1% carrageenan solutions at 70°C. Also, mixing parameters (Power number, Blend number, and Pumping number) were determined at different D/T ratios. Cost-effective pipe diameter and optimum pipe diameter per unit length were also determined.


. Arismendi, C., Chillo, S., Conte, A., Del Nobile, M.A., Flores, S., Gerschenson, L.N., “Optimization of physical properties of xanthan gum/tapioca starch edible matrices containing potassium sorbate and evaluation of its antimicrobial effectiveness”, LWT—Food Sci. Technol., Vol. 53, pp. 290–296, 2013.

. Bosquez-Molina, E., Guerrero-Legarreta, I., Vernon-Carter, E.J., “Moisture barrier properties and morphology of mesquite gum: candelilla wax based edible emulsion coatings”, Food Res. Int., Vol. 36, pp. 885–893, 2003.

. Aguirre-Joya, J.A. De Leon-Zapata, M.A., Alverez-Perez, O.B., Torres-Leon, C., Nieto-Oropeza, D.E., Ventura-Sobrevilla, J.M., “Basic and Applied Concepts of Edible Packaging for Foods”, Food Packaging and Preservation, pp. 1-60, 2018

. Volery, P.; Besson, R.; Schaffer-Lequart, C. J. Agr. Food Chem. 2004, 52, 7457-7463

. Cagri A., Ustunol Z., Ryser E.T., “Antimicrobial edible films and coatings”, J. Food Prot., , Vol. 67, pp. 833–848, 2004.

. Megawati, B. T., Karwono, W. S. and Rofiatun M., “Scale-Up of Solid-Liquid Mixing Based on Constant Power/Volume and Equal Blend Time Using VisiMix Simulation”, MATEC Web of Conferences, pp. 187, 2018.

. Péter C. and Csaba H., “Predicting the friction factor in straight pipes in the case of Bingham plastic and the power-law fluids by means of measurements and CFD simulation”, Chemical Engineering, Vol. 57, pp., 79–83, 2013.

. Saiful, Siti Saleha, and Salman, “Preparation and characterization edible film packaging from carrageenan”, Proceedings of The 3rd Annual International Conference Syiah Kuala University (AIC Unsyiah) 2013, Banda Aceh, Indonesia, 2013.

. Tomáš J., František R. and Dorin C., “Scale-Up of Mixing Equipment for Suspensions”, process, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 8, pp. 870, 2020.

. Ameur, H. and Bouzit, M., “Mixing in Shear Thinning Fluids”, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 02, pp. 349 - 358, 2012.

. Marek J., Anna M. and Luana D., “Effect of Impeller Design on Power Characteristics and Newtonian Fluids Mixing Efficiency in a Mechanically Agitated Vessel at Low Reynolds Numbers”, Energies, Vol. 13, pp. 1-19, 2020.

. Brookfield manual, "Brookfield manual No.M/98-211-B0104 Operating Instructions, Brookfield Engineering Laboratories, Inc. Middleboro, MA.USA. 1998.

. Peters, M.S., Timmerhaus, K.D., “Plant Design and Economic for Chemical Engineers” McGraw-Hill International Editions, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Series, Fourth Edition, Ney York, USA., 1991.

. Sorour, M. A., Abdou, E. S. and Bosamari, S., "Rheological properties of Apricot jam through piping" J. TESCE, The Transactions of the Egyptian Society of Chemical Engineers, Vol. 35, pp. 17-35, 2009.

. Mostafa S. R., Sorour, M. A., Bo Samri S. M., “Scale-up of flat bladed mixer in orange juice concentrate”, American Journal of Energy Engineering process, Vol. 3, pp.1-5, 2015

. Luan D., Chen Q., and Zhou S., “Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Power Consumption and Metzner-Otto Constant for Impeller of 6PBT”, Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 27, pp. 635-640, 2014.

. Sean M., “Pump sizing bridging the gap between theory and practice”, American Institute of chem. Eng., pp 38-44, 2016.

. Timothy A. A. and Solomon O. G., “Optimum Pipe Size Selection for Turbulent Flow”, Leonardo Journal of Sciences, Issue 14, p.112-123, 2009.

. Péter C. and Csaba H., “Predicting the friction factor in straight pipes in the case of Bingham plastic and the power-law fluids by means of measurements and CFD simulation”, Chemical Engineering,Vol. 57, pp. 79–83, 2013.

. Marcin K. and Jacek W., “Economic Pipe Size Selection by Using Graphical Method”, Chemiical Engiineeriing Transactiions, Vol. 39, pp. 835-840, 2014.

. Arunjyoti S., Senapati, S. C. and Sirisha A., “A mathematical model for the selection of an economical pipe size in pressurized irrigation systems”, African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 11(8), pp. 683-692, 2016.




How to Cite

M. Ali, S., A. Sorour, M. ., A. Wassel, M. ., & Ayad, M. I. . (2021). Scaling Up Manufacturing of Edible Coatings for Food. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 81(1), 79–91. Retrieved from