Evaluation of Cow Bone Ash (CBA) as Additives in Stabilization of Lateritic and Termitaria Soil


  • Adanikin Ariyo Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Elizade University, Ilara-Mokin, Nigeria
  • Ajayi Joseph Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Elizade University, Ilara-Mokin, Nigeria
  • Busari Ayobami Department of Civil and Envr. Engineering, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria
  • Fakorede Ebenezer Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Elizade University, Ilara-Mokin, Nigeria
  • Fase Temidayo Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Elizade University, Ilara-Mokin, Nigeria


Cow Bone Ash, Termitaria Soils, Lateritic soils, unconfined compressive strength, California bearing ratio


Continual pavement distresses on Nigerian highways, as well as environmental contamination from abattoir solid wastes such cow-bones have been a major concern. This study examined the usage of additives in stabilizing weak soils and enhancing their geotechnical properties utilizing Cow Bone Ash (CBA) on lateritic and termitaria soils. The following engineering confirmatory tests were carried out on the samples: compaction test, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and California bearing ratio (CBR) test. CBA at 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% were added to the soil samples. The study revealed that for lateritic and termitaria soils, the maximum amount of CBA that would allow for an increase in soaked CBR value was at 6% and 8%, respectively, while for the unsoaked CBR, the peak values was obtained at 8%. Also, the addition of CBA increased the UCS of both soil samples. The addition of CBA resulted in decreasing optimum moisture content (OMC) for termitaria soils as its pore spaces are filled up by the CBA while for the lateritic soils, increase in CBA resulted in increased OMC values. Also, the addition of CBA to both soil samples resulted in an increase in maximum dry density (MDD) values. The study revealed that termitaria soils have higher strength than the lateritic soils due to higher cohesiveness within its pore structure, lower OMC, higher MDD, UCS, and CBR values. The study concludes that the use of CBA to a maximum of 8% as an additive in stabilization of lateritic and termitaria soils is effective and therefore recommends its use in light and medium trafficked roads.


. O. E. Oluwatuyi, and O. O. Ojuri, A. Khoshghal, “Cement-lime stabilization of crude oil contaminated kaolin clay,” Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 12 no. 1, pp. 160-167, 2020.

. E. S. Nnochiri, and O. A. Adetayo, “Geotechnical properties of lateritic soil stabilized with corn cob ash,” Acta Technica Corviniensis - Bull Eng, vol. 12 no. 1, pp. 73–76, 2019.

. E. O. Fakorede, C. M. Ikumapayi, A. A. Adeniji, and A. Adanikin, “The Effect of Curing Media on Compressive Strength of Microbial Laterite Concrete,” American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, vol. 61 no. 1, pp. 92-102, 2019.

. P. Nalobile, J. M. Wachira, J. K. Thiong’o, and J. M. Marangu, “A Review on Pyroprocessing techniques for selected wastes used for blended cement production applications,” Advances in Civil Engineering, vol 3, pp. 1–12, 2020.

. A. Adanikin, F. Falade, and A. Olutaiwo, “Volumetric Properties of Cow Bone Ash (CBA) Filler-Based Asphaltic Concrete Using Aggregates from Different Sources,” Journal of Applied Research on Industrial Engineering, vol. 7 no. 1, pp. 13-24, 2020

. N. Cristelo, S. Glendinning, L. Fernandes, and A.T. Pinto, “Effects of alkaline-activated fly ash and Portland cement on soft soil stabilization” Acta Geotechnica, vol. 8, pp. 395-405, 2013

. K. Mustapha, E. Annan, S. T. Azeko, M. G. Zebaze, W. O. Soboyejo, “Strength and fracture toughness of earth-based natural fiber-reinforced composites,” Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 50 no. 9, pp. 1145-1160, 2016.

. N. Aziz, and M. Mukri, “The effect of Geopolymer to the compaction parameter of laterite soil,” Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 24 no. 5, pp. 1588-1593, 2016.

. O. A. Fadele, and O. Ata, “Water absorption properties of sawdust lignin stabilised compressed laterite bricks,” Case Studies in Construction Materials, vol. 9, pp. 1-10, 2018.

. ASTM, “Standards on Soil Stabilization with Admixtures,” (2nd ed.), 2014

. G. M. Ayininuola, and A. O. Sogunro A.O, “Bone ash impact on soil shear strength” International Journal of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, vol. 7 no. 11, pp. 772-776, 2013.

. C. M. Ikumapayi, and E. O. Fakorede, “Quality Assurance of Available Portland Cements in Nigeria,” International Journal of World Policy and Development Studies, vol. 5 no. 6, pp. 53-63, 2019.

. S. Diamond, and E. B. Kinter, “Mechanisms of soil-lime stabilization,” Highway Research Record, vol. 92, pp. 83- 102, 1965.

. O. A. Adetayo, O. O. Amu, and A. O. Ilori, “Cement stabilized structural foundation lateritic soil with bone ash powder as additive,” Arid zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, vol. 15 no. 2, pp. 479–487, 2019.

. J. Boschuk, “Landfill covers - an engineering perspective,” Geotech Fabrics Report, vol. 9 no. 4, pp. 23-34, 1991.

. N. Cristelo, S. Glendinning, T. Miranda, D. Oliveira, and R. Silva, “Soil stabilization using alkaline activation of fly ash for self-compacting rammed earth construction,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 36, pp. 727-735, 2012.

. F. Achampong, R. A. Anum, P. F. Boadu, N. B. Djangmah, and L. P. Chegbele, “Chemical stabilization of laterite soils for road construction,” International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 4 no. 11, pp. 2019-2041, 2013.

. ASTM D 2166, “Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil,” 2016.

. ASTM D1883, “Standard Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016.

. ASTM D698, “Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)),” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012.

. Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, Nigerian General Specification for Roads and Bridge Revised Edition, vol. 2, pp. 137–275, 1997.

. E. E. Arinze, “Stabilization of Laterites with Industrial wastes. A recent and comprehensive review” International Journal of Advancements in Research and Technology, vol. 4 no. 11, pp. 69-87, 2015.

. V. Kumar, A. Singh, and P. Garg, “Stabilization of Clayey Soil Using Chicken Bone Ash” International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts, vol. 6 no. 2, pp. 486 – 495, 2018.

. A. Olutaiwo, S. Ajisafe, and A. Adanikin, “Structural Evaluation of the Effect of Pulverized Palm Kernel Shell (PPKS) on Cement-Modified Lateritic Soil Sample” American Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 5 no. 4, pp. 205-211, 2017.

. G. Ayininuola, and O. Fadele, “Stabilizing Sandy Soil Using Reworked Earth Materials,” Journal of Environment and Earth Science, vol. 7 no. 8, pp. 75-79, 2017.

. T. B. Edil, H. A. Acosta, and C. H. Benson, “Stabilizing Soft Fine-Grained Soils with Fly Ash’ Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 18, pp. 283-294, 2006.

. E. S. Nnochiri, and H. O. Emeka, “Effects of Coconut Shell Ash on Lime-Stabilized Lateritic Soil,” MOJ Civil Engineering, vol. 2 no. 4, pp. 1-4, 2017.

. M. Joel, and J. E. Edeh, “Comparative analysis of cement and lime modification of Ikpayongo laterite for effective and economic stabilization” Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 6 no. 1, pp. 49-56, 2015.




How to Cite

Ariyo, A. ., Joseph, A. ., Ayobami, B. ., Ebenezer, F. ., & Temidayo, F. . (2021). Evaluation of Cow Bone Ash (CBA) as Additives in Stabilization of Lateritic and Termitaria Soil. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 80(1), 136–144. Retrieved from https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/6908