Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, B and C, Clinical Isolates in Lafia, Nigeria
AbstractThe aim of the research was to investigate the antibacterial activities and the phytochemical properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves, on clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C, in Lafia, Nigeria. The agar well diffusion technique was used and the analyses were done in triplicates. Salmonella typhi, showed inhibition zone of 29.4±0.1mm, at the highest aqueous extract concentration of 80 mg/ml, while Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C, exhibited inhibition zones of 14.4±0.2 mm, 21.2±0.4 mm and 13.4±0.1 mm respectively. At the highest ethanolic extract concentration of 80 mg/ml, Salmonella typhi, showed inhibition zone of 30.0±0.01mm, while Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C, exhibited inhibition zones of 18.0±0.03mm, 20.0±0.04mm and 21.0±0.04mm respectively. At aqueous lower extract concentration of 10mg/ml, Salmonella typhi, exhibited inhibition zone of 8.4±0.01mm, while Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C, showed inhibition zones of 9.5±0.01mm, 9.1±0.01mm and 6.2±0.01mm respectively as exhibited in the Neem leaf extract. Ethanolic extract at 10 mg/ml, Salmonella typhi, showed inhibition zone of 9.0±0.1mm, while Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C, exhibited inhibition zones of 9.0±0.01mm, 9.0±0.01mm and 9.0±0.01mm respectively of Neem leaf extract. The MIC and MBC, of aqueous and ethanolic extracts against organisms were 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml, respectively. The qualitative phytochemical results showed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. Conclusively, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of studied medicinal plant exhibited bactericidal activities against all tested organisms, and this supports the claim by traditional medical practitioners and vendors of the use of the plants for the cure of typhoid fever. Further studies are recommended on the toxicity and safe dosage regimen of the plants since the infusion of the plant is taken orally by people for the cure of typhoid fever.
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