Investigating the Impact of Non-Hydrodynamically Connected Descaling Parameters in the Removal of Different Stages of Paraffin Deposits Using Multiple Nozzles in Petroleum Production Tubing


  • Kabir. H. Yar’Adua
  • Abubakar J. Abbas
  • Salihu M. Suleiman
  • Idoko. J. John
  • Abdullahi A. Ahmadu Petroleum and Gas Engineering Department, University of Salford, Manchester, UK.
  • Aisha Kabir Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.


oilfield descaling, High-pressure water jets, nozzle configurations


Despite the continued research efforts in understanding the erosional behaviors of multiple flat fan nozzles in the removal of different types of scale deposits from petroleum production tubing. The non-hydrodynamically connected descaling parameters such as stand-off distance, nozzle arrangement and chamber pressure have not been duly considered up to date. This research utilizes 3-flat fan high-pressure nozzles at a high injection pressure of 10 MPa to remove paraffin deposits at different growth stages from petroleum production tubing to evaluate the effects of the descaling parameters on scale removal. A stand-off distance of 25 mm, 50 mm and 75 mm; nozzle arrangement in novel orientations (triangle, diagonal & right-angle) involving 7-nozzles header and chamber pressures (in compression – 0.2 MPa and vacuum -8.0 x10-3 MPa) were utilized as the varying non-hydrodynamically connected parameters. Generally, the selection of both nozzle arrangement and chamber air concentration was found to be governed by the type and shape of the deposit in question while the scale removal capability was found to be reduced with an increase in stand-off distance due to poor jet contact. An average hollow shaped paraffin removal of 276 g, 259 g and 226 g were recorded at ambient condition across the respective stand-off distance of the three respective nozzles arrangements. While the introduction of 0.2 MPa compressed air significantly increased the respective removal of the early stage paraffin deposition to 342 g, 299 g and 277 g respectively. Also, more hollow shaped removal improvement of 366 g, 320 g and 288 g were achieved after suctioning the chamber by -0.008 MPa, while simultaneously pumping water at 10 MPa. The case of solid shaped paraffin signifying complete tubing blockage was not effective at ambient condition, with average paraffin removal of 99 g, 126 g and 112 g respectively. However, the introduction of compressed chamber air registered the best solid paraffin removal results of 235 g, 286 g and 256 g respectively. Whereas the suction operation recorded an average removal of 229 g, 270 g and 250 g of paraffin across the respective jet positions and nozzle configurations. This result provides a practical approach to the removal of organic scales deposits at varying descaling conditions of injection pressure, standoff distance and nozzle arrangement.


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How to Cite

H. Yar’Adua, K. ., J. Abbas, A. ., M. Suleiman, S. ., J. John, I. ., A. Ahmadu, A. ., & Kabir, A. . (2021). Investigating the Impact of Non-Hydrodynamically Connected Descaling Parameters in the Removal of Different Stages of Paraffin Deposits Using Multiple Nozzles in Petroleum Production Tubing. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 80(1), 34–51. Retrieved from