Practical and Symbolic Aspects of Olive Oil Donations in Asia Minor during the Hellenistic period and the Principate

  • Alina Andrieș PhD Faculty of History, University Al. I. Cuza, Iasi, 700115
Keywords: olive oil donations, euergetism, honors, gymnasiarchs, magistrates, prices, amphora, social relations

Abstract

This paper concludes some major aspects regarding olive oil donations in Asia Minor during the Hellenistic period and the Principate. These benefactions were part of the larger phenomenon called Euergetism, that took place in all Greek cities, starting with the fifth Century BC, in which rich and poor, magistrates and ordinary people were exchanging gifts and honors for the well-being of the City and for themselves. Through the study of oil donations there can be highlighted the relations between donor and donated, the importance of the value of gifts in receiving honors, the social and economic characteristics of the city during the studied period, the practical and symbolic aspects that derive from donating olive oil in antic Asia Minor.

References

. The evolution of the term and phenomenon Euergetism from Asia Minor was synthesized in a previous paper published in 2018, A. Cantacuz. “Some New Considerations about Evergetism in Asia Minor. The Hellenistic Period and the First Century BC”. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS), vol. 43, 2018, pp. 241-262.

. http://www.attalus.org/, List of sources and translations.

. Mihaela Paraschiv- University professor of classical languages, „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of Letters- M. Paraschiv. Lexic grec şi latin universal. Iasi: Demiurg, 2007; Iulian Moga- University lecturer, „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iasi, Faculty of History- I. Moga. Culte solare şi lunare în Asia Mică în timpul Principatului (secolul I-III d. Hr.). Iasi: Editura Universităţii "Alexandru Ioan Cuza", 2011.

. Mădălina Dana- Professor of Greek history, Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3- M. Dana. Culture et mobilité dans le Pont-Euxin. Approche régionale de la vie culturelle des cités grecques, Bordeaux: Ausonius, 2011.

. R. Bruce Hitchner. „Olive Production and The Roman Economy: The Case of Intensive Growth”. La production du vin et de l'huile en Méditerranée. Actes du symposium international Aix-en-Provence et Toulon, 1991¸ pp. 499- 510.

. A. Opait. „Aspects of the Provisioning of The Pontic Settlements with Olive Oil in the Hellenistic and Early Roman Periods”. Actes de la Table Ronde internationale de Batoumi et Trazbon, 27-29 Avril 2006, 2010, pp. 153-158.

. C. Autret, N. Rauh. „Roman Amphorae Production in Western Rough Cilicia”. Olive oïl and wine production in Anatolia during Antiquity. Symposium Proceedings, 06-08 November 2008, 2010, pp. 109-122.

. See [6] pp. 158.

. MM. Ch. Daremberg, E. Saglio, E. Pottier. Dictionnaire des antiquités grecques et romaines, d'après les textes et les monuments, contenant l'explication des termes qui se rapportent aux mœurs, aux institutions, à la religion, et en général à la vie publique et privée des anciens. Paris: Libraire Hachette, 1877-1919. pp. 169.

. A. Diler. „Olive Oil and Wine Production of the Halikarnassos Peninsula in Karia”. Olive oil and wine production in Anatolia during Antiquity. Symposium Proceedings, 06-08 November 2008, 2010, pp. 135-174, pp. 135-174.

. See [6] pp. 159-160.

. R. L. Barr. Honors for Late Hellenistic Civic Benefactors in Western Asia Minor, Cincinnati. Midwest Christian College, 1995. pp. 44-52.

. TAM V 2.

. I. Tralles 5.

. (a) B. Dignas. Economy of the Sacred in the Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 14. (b) S. Dimitriev. City government in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor/ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005 pp. 360-370. (c) L. Migeotte. „Les Finances des Cités Grecques aux Périodes Classique et Hellénistique”. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2014, pp. 371-385.

. MDAI (A) 1907, 278; TAM V, 2, 1343; I Milet I 9, 368; BCH 13, 1889, p. 335-340; I Priene 112.

. I. Priene 112.

. L. Foxhall. Olive Cultivation in Ancient Greece: Seeking the Ancient Economy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 92.

. Unit of measure in ancient Greece, approximately 40 liters, in A. Bailly. Dictionnaire GREC-FRANÇAIS. Paris: Hachette, 1996 [1950], pp. 2198.

. TAM V 2, 1343.

. (a) D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor. To the end of the third century after Christ. Vol. I-II. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1950, pp. 122. (b) R. Billows, Antigonos the One-Eyed and the Creation of the Hellenistic State. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 196.

. Attic drachma and denarius were equivalent coins, denarius was worth 4 sesterce, in B. Levick, „Greece (Including Crete and Cyprus) and Asia Minor from 43 B.C. to A.D. 69” in The Cambridge Ancient History. The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.- A.D. 69. Vol X. K. Bowman, E. Champlin, A. Lintott, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. XVIII-XIX.

. (a) SEG 9, 42; (b) M. Abdelhamed, „Legume production at Cyrene in the Hellenistic period: Epigraphic evidence”. Libyan Studies, 49, 2018, pp. 159-169.

. See [22] p. XVIII-XIX.

. Plin. H. N., XIV, 150.

. Ath. Deipnosophistae II, 55.

. Hor. Sat. II, 2, 10-59. Iuvenal Satire V. pp. 63.

. A. Zuiderhoek. The Politics of Munificence in the Roman Empire. Citizens, Elites and Benefactors in Asia Minor, Cambridge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 77.

. I. Kalchedon 45.

. I. Kalchedon 65.

. H. Möbius. Die Ostgriechischen Grabreliefs. II. Mainz, 1979, nr. 82, pl. 2273.

. (a) I. Kalchedon 70. P. Fröhlich. Les activités évergétiques des gymnasiarques à l’époque hellénistique tardive : la fourniture de l’huile, în Curty, O. (ed.), L’huile et l’argent. Actes du colloque tenu à Fribourg du 13 au 15 octobre 2005, publiés en l’honneur du Prof. Marcel Piérart à l’occasion de son 60ème anniversaire, 2009, pp. 57-94, pp. 72-78.

. I Dydima 248, IGRP 3 804, RICIS*312/0501, I. Str. 242, I. Str. 664, I. Dydima 279.

. S. Mitchell. Anatolia. Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor. The Celts in Anatolia and the Impact of Roman Rule. Vol. 1, Oxford: Clarendon Paperbacks, 1993, Table 8.1, pp. 107-109.

. J. H. Oliver. Sacred Gerousia, Athens, 1941. Ephesus 5, pp. 87, IGR IV 860.

. CIG 2782, M. Sartre, op. cit., 65, pp. 253, I Eph. 661.

. (a) J. H. Oliver. Sacred Gerousia, Athens, 1941. Ephesus 35, pp. 148, (b) SEG 4, 421.

. (a) S. J. Friesen. Twice Neokoros. Ephesus, Asia, and the Cult of the Flavian Imperial Family. Leiden, New York, Köln, 1993, pp. 116. (b) Ramsay, 31, pp. 143. BCH, 1892, 429, n. 59. I Tralles 5. IGR IV 788. I. Str. 664. See [37] Ephesus 45, pp. 157.

. MDAI (A) 1907, 278. I Milet I 9, 368. TAM V 2, 1343. I Iasos 84. BCH 13, 1889, pp. 335-340. I. Priene 112.

. BCH 13, 1889, pp. 335-340.

. SEG 53, 1373.

. I. Erythrai 21.

. Chios 12.

. MDAI (A) 64, 1957, pp. 233-41.

. Syll. 3, 368.

. Amyzon 7.

. SEG 18, 570.

. SEG 27, 929.

. L. and J. Robert, Claros I. pp. 63-104.

. See [38] (a) p. 116.

. See [37] Ephesus 35, pp. 148.

. I. Str. 242.

. SEG 6185.

. A. P. Gregory. Village Society in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor. Columbia, 1997, 44, pp. 648.

. P. Garnsey, Cities, Peasants and Food in Classical Antiquity. Essay in Social and Economic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 241.

. J. Leclant. Dictionnaire de l’Antiquité. Paris, 2005, pp. 912-913.

. Pol. 1280b30f.

. A. Giovannini. Greek Cities and Greek Commonwealth, in Images and Ideologies. Self-definition in the Hellenistic World. A Bulloch, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1993, pp. 265-266.

. (a) M. Rostovtzeff. The Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World. Vol 2, Oxford, 1998, pp. 1058-1060; (b) J. Delorme. Le monde hellénistique (323-133 avant J.-C.). Événements et institutions. Paris, 1975, pp. 441; (c) M. Austin. The Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest. A Selection of Ancient Sources in Translation. Cambridge, New York, 2006, pp. 137, 30.

. See [58] pp. 271-273.

. See [59] (c) pp. 137, 10, 90.

Published
2021-06-18
Section
Articles