Analysis Over the Accuracy of Dynamic Formulas for Predicting Ultimate Load Capacity in Deep Foundations
AbstractIn Civil Engineering, particularly in Geotechnics, several empirical methods, commonly referred to as dynamic equations, have been proposed for prediction of ultimate load capacity of driven piles. However, these formulas are admitted inaccurate and, so, there is a need to evaluate the results obtained by them. In this work a comparative analysis of the values obtained by five dynamic equations (Janbu, Danish, Gates, FHWA-Gates and WSDOT) with actual ultimate load capacities (obtained through pile load tests at site) is made. Errors are measured using the root mean squared error and the correlation between the equation´s results and the measured values is verified. The results showed important differences between the ultimate capacities obtained from the analyzed models and the real values verified in field tests. It was also verified a superiority, in terms of lower error and greater correlation, of the WSDOT and Danish formulas. Attempts were made to improve the methods. For this, coefficients were determined that, when multiplied by the results of the formulas, promoted a reduction in error. Once again, WSDOT presented best perform in terms of correlation and error.
. B.H. Fellenius. Basics of Foundation Design. British Columbia, 2020. http://www.fellenius.net/papers/401%20The%20Red%20Book,%20Basics%20of%20foundation%20design%202020.pdf
. B.M. Das. Principles of Foundation Engineering. Seventh Edition.Cengage Learning, Stamford, 2011.
. M.A. de L. Alves., F.D.R. Lopes., B.R. Danziger. "Métodos dinâmicos para previsão e controle do comportamento de estacas cravadas", Teoria e prática na Engenharia Civil; n.4, p. 12-22, 2004.
. J.F. Cabette. "Análise dos métodos semi-empíricos utilizados para estimativa da capacidade de carga de estacas pré-fabricadas com base em resultados de ensaios de carregamento dinâmico". Dissertation, University of São Paulo, 2014.
. J.C.A. Cintra., N. Aoki. Fundações por Estacas - Projeto Geotécnico. Oficina dos Texto, São Paulo, 2010.
. J.E. Bowles. Foundation Analysis and Design. 5th Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, 1996.
. H.A.Azeredo. O Edifício Até Sua Cobertura. 2a Edition. Edgar Blucher, São Paulo, 1977.
. B.M. Das. Principles of the Geotechnical Engineering. 7th ed., Cengage Learning, Stamford, 2010.
. W.C. Hachich., F.F. Falconi., J. Saes., R.G.Q. Frota., C.S. Carvalho., S. Niyama. Fundações – Teoria e prática. Ed. Pini, ABMS/ABEF, 2ª. ed., São Paulo, 1998.
. D.D.A. Velloso., F.D.R. Lopes. FUNDAÇÕES. Oficina de textos, São Paulo, 2012.
. Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. "NBR 6122: Projeto e execução de fundações". Rio de Janeiro, 2010.
. A.S. Vesic. "Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations in Sand.National Academy of Sciences", Highway Research Board, Report No. 39, Washington D.C.; pp. 112-153,1963.
. W. Chan., Y. Chow., L. Liu. "Neural network: an alternative to pile driving formulas", Computers and geotechnics; vol. 17, no.2: 135-156, 1995.
. I. M. Lee., J.H. "Prediction of pile bearing capacity using artificial neural networks", Computers and Geotechnics; vol. 18, no.3: 189-200, 1996.
. T.A. Pham., H-B. Ly., V-Q Tran., L.V. Giap., H-L. T. Vu., H-A. T. Duong. "Prediction of Pile Axial Bearing Capacity Using Artificial Neural Network and Random Forest", Applied Sciences; 10(5):1871, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051871
. A.D. Pessoa., G.C. L. Sousa., R.C. Araujo., G.J.M. Anjos. "Artificial Neural Network Model for Predicting Load Capacity of Driven Piles", Research, Society and Development; 10 (1):e12210111526, 2021. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i1.11526.
. K. Terzaghi. Theoretical Soil Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons,, New York, 1943
. R. V. Gallegos. "Aplicabilidade da equação de onda e de fórmulas dinâmicas na estimativa da capacidade de carga em estacas". Dissertation, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 2014.
. T. Sorensen., B. Hansen. "Pile driving formulae—an investigation based on dimensional considerations and a statistical analysis". In: Proceedings of 4th international conference soil mechanics and foundation engineering, 1957.
. B. O. Lobo. "Método de previsão de capacidade de carga de estacas : aplicação dos conceitos de energia do ensaio SPT". . Dissertação (Mestrado).
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Civil. UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 2005.
. M.S. R. Jayaweera. "Capacity Estimation of Piles Using Dynamic Methods". Master of Engineering in Foundation Engineering &
Earth Retaining Systems. University of Moratuwa. Sri-Lanka, 2009.
. SCAC. "Case: conjunto residencial no Rio de Janeiro", 2013. <https://issuu.com/scacengenharia/docs/scac_case_conj_residencial_rj>
. J. Benesty., J. Chen., Y. Huang., I. Cohen. "Pearson correlation coefficient". In Noise reduction in speech processing (pp. 1-4). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
. C.J. Willmott., K. Matsuura. "Advantages of the mean absolute error (MAE) over the root mean square error (RMSE) in assessing average model performance", Clim Res.; 30(1):79–82, 2005.
Copyright (c) 2021 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.