BER and Capacity/Spectral Efficiency Enhancement of MIMO Systems Using Digital Antenna Arrays Beamforming

  • Amr H. Hussein Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta 31511, Egypt
  • Nourhan M. Salem Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta 31511, Egypt
  • Mohamed E. Nasr Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta 31511, Egypt
  • Mahmoud M. Selim Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta 31511, Egypt
Keywords: MIMO, ULA array, digital beamforming, ML, ZF, BER, spectral efficiency


Multi-input Multi-output (MIMO) systems are of the most promising ones in the field of wireless communications as they provide high data rates and reduce the bit error rate (BER) using spatial multiplexing (SM) and diversity gain techniques, respectively. The deep review of MIMO systems shows that most of them are based on the utilization of uniform linear antennas (ULA) arrays. For further performance enhancement, a new digital array beamforming technique for linear antenna arrays optimization is introduced for both single-user and multi-user MIMO systems to achieve maximum gain. In our proposed technique, the antenna arrays are implemented for a higher gain by adjusting the feeding and the distance between the antenna elements. The modified mathematical model for our proposed digital array beamforming MIMO system has been derived and merged to the current linear detection techniques such as Maximum Likelihood (ML), Zero Forcing (ZF), and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE). The simulation results demonstrated the superiority of our proposed technique over the traditional MIMO systems in terms of BER and spectral efficiency (SE).


. Javornik, T., Kandus, G., Plevel, S., & Tomazic, S. (2008). MIMO: Wireless Communications.

. Sridhanya, A., Abhiram, Y., Guru, P. D., & Varsha, S. S. (2012). On the Design of MIMO-OFDM Transceivers via Geometric Mean Decomposition. International Journal of Computer Applications, 43(19), 7-14.

. Ali, A. B., Yung-Wey, C., Sabri, M. H., & Tat-Chee, W. (2015). On the Optimizing of LTE System Performance for SISO and MIMO Modes.Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Modelling and Simulation, 412-416.

. Nidhi, K.M., & Suresh, R. H. (2016). Analysis of MIMO-OFDM using Different Modulation Techniques International Journal of Computer Applications. , 153(6), 37-40.

. J. Garcia-Frias and J. D. Villasenor, "Joint Turbo Decoding and Estimation of Hidden Markov Sources," in IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1671-1679, Sept. 2001.

. Ilmiawan, S., & Yukitoshi, S. (2017). Joint Turbo Decoding for Overloaded MIMO-OFDM Systems.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, 66(1), 433-442.

. Reham, W., Abd-Elsalam, Amr ,H. H., & Mahmoud ,A. A. (2016). Performance Enhancement of MIMO Detectors using Wavelet De-noising Filters. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 5(4), 131-134.

. Samar, I. F., Mustafa, M. A. E., Amr, H. H., & Fathi E. A. (2016). Hybrid Techniques for Fast and Low Complexity MIMO Detection. ICCTA 2016, 25-27 October 2016, Alexandria, Egypt, 98-103.

. Vijay, V., & Alle–Jan, v. d. V. (2010). Analog Beamforming in MIMO Communications with Phase Shift Networks and Online Channel Estimation. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 58(8), 4131–4143.

. Fouad, G., Javir,V., & Ignacio, S. (2011). Beamforming Design for Simplified Analog Antenna Combining Architectures.IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 60(5), 2373–2378.

. Le, L., Wie, X., & Xiaodai, D. (2014). Low-complexity Hybrid Precoding in Massive Multiuser MIMO Systems.IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 3(6), 653–656.

. Shuangfeng, H., Chih-Lin, I., Zhikun, X., & Corbett, R. (2015). Large-scale Antenna Systems with Hybrid Analog and Digital Beamforming for Millimeter Wave 5G. IEEE Communications Magazine, 53(1), 186–194.

. Liu, Y., Nie, Z., & Liu, Q. H. (2008). Reducing the Number of Elements in a Linear Antenna Array by the Matrix Pencil Method. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. ,56(9), 2955-2962.

. Liu, Y., Liu, Q. H., & Nie ,Z. (2010). Reducing the Number of Elements in the Synthesis of Shaped-beam Patterns by the Forward-backward Matrix Pencil Method.IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 58(2), 604-608.

. Liu, Y., Nie, Z., & Liu ,Q. H. (2010). A New Method for the Synthesis of Non-uniform Linear Arrays with Shaped Power Patterns.Progress In Electromagnetics Research, 107, 349-363.

. Kumar, B. P., & Branner , G. R. (1999). Design of Unequally Spaced Arrays for Performance Improvement,. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 47 (3) , 511–523.

. Marcano, D., & Duran , F. (2000). Synthesis of Antenna Arrays using Genetic Algorithms. IEEE Antennas Propag. Magazine, 42(3), 12-20.

. Kurup, D. G., Himdi, M., & Rydberg, A. (2003). Synthesis of Uniform Amplitude Unequally Spaced Antenna Array using the Differential Evolution Algorithm. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 51(9), 2210–2217.

. Amr, H. H., Haythem, H. A., Ahmed , M.S., Salah, K., & Mohamed, N. (2011). Optimum Design of Linear Antenna Arrays Using a Hybrid MoM/GA Algorithm. IEEE, Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 10,1232-1235.

. Ho, S. L., & Shiyou , Y. (2009). Multiobjective Synthesis of Antenna Arrays using a Vector Tabu Search Algorithm. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., 8, 947-950.

. Murino, V., Trucco, A., & Regazzoni, C. S. (1996). Synthesis of Unequally Spaced Arrays by Simulated Annealing. IEEE Trans. Signal Process., 44(1), 119–122.

. Kesong, C., Xiaohua , Y., Zi , S., H., & Chunlin Han (2007). Synthesis of Sparse Planar Arrays using Modified Real Genetic Algorithm. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. , 55(4), 1067–1073.

. Jin , N., & Rahmat-Samii , Y. (2007). Advances in Particle Swarm Optimization for Antenna Designs: Real-number, Binary, Single-objective and Multi objective Implementations. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 55(3) , 556–567.

. Yong, S. C., Jaekwon , K., Won, Y.Y., & Chung-Gu, K. (2010). MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communications With MATLAB. Singapore: Wiley.

. Constantine, A. B. (2005). Antenna Theory: Analysis and