Evaluation of X-Ray Computed Tomography in an Erodible Soil Reinforced with Babassu Coconut Fibers and Construction Waste


  • Michele Joyce Pereira dos Santos Master’s Student, University of Pernambuco, Department of Civil Engineering, Recife, Brazil
  • Kalinny Patricia Vaz Lafayette Assistant Professor, University of Pernambuco, Department of Civil Engineering, Recife, Brazil
  • Thiago Augusto da Silva Master’s Student, University of Pernambuco, Department of Civil Engineering, Recife, Brazil


Composite materials, Non-destructive assay, Soil porosity


To guarantee the maintenance of the environment, the civil construction sector has expanded its search for materials from renewable sources and, therefore, composite materials are being produced from the reuse of natural fibers and construction waste. This study analyzes the physical and mechanical behaviors of an erodible hillside soil reinforced with natural babassu coconut fibers and civil construction waste (CCW), class A. As methodological procedures, the Unidimensional Densification laboratory test was carried out for the soil, CCW, and composites, observing the void index versus log curves of the effective tension, the porosity content, and the compression index. The X-Ray Computed Tomography non-destructive test was also performed for comparative purposes of the porosity result. The results showed that the use of CCW and babassu coconut fibers in the reinforcement reduces voids present in the soil. This reduction points to better soil function in the face of erosion caused by the action of water. The composite with 50% soil + 49.5% residue + 0.5% fiber was the one with the lowest voids index, guaranteeing a 21% reduction in porosity. It was possible to verify that the tomography test provides results compatible with the one-dimensional densification test, regarding the determination of porosity, with variations of ± 3%.


. C. Cristelo. “Stabilization of granitic residual soils by adding lime.” Dissertation, University of Minho, Portugal, 2001.

. G. Brandi. “Predictability and settlement control in radiers on soft ground.” Dissertation, Federal University of Paraná, Brazil, 2004.

. B. Guedes. “Study of mechanical performance of soil-cement reinforced with synthetic fibers for use as a primary coating on unpaved roads.” Thesis, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, 2013.

. M. Hejazi, M. Sheikhzadeh, M. Abtahi, A. Zadhaush. “A simple review of soil reinforcement by using natural and synthetic fibers.” Construction and building materials, vol. 30, pp. 100-116, 2012.

. W. Zhang, Y. Li, F. Li, L. Li, J. Xu, Q. Xie, F. Guo. “Novel treatments for compatibility of plant fiber and starch by forming new hydrogen bonds.” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 185, pp. 357-365, 2018.

. P. Menezes. “Analysis of the mechanical behavior of sandy loamy soil reinforced with green coconut fibers.” Dissertation, University of Pernambuco, Brazil, 2018.

. V. Anggraini, A. Asadi, N. Farzadnia, H. Jahangirian, K. Huat. “Effects of coir fibers modified with Ca (OH) 2 and Mg (OH) 2 nanoparticles on mechanical properties of lime-treated marine clay.” Geosynthetics International, vol. 23, pp. 206-218, 2016.

. Y. Wu, C. Xia, L. Cai, C. Garcia, Q. Shi. “Development of natural fiber reinforced composite with comparable mechanical properties and reduced energy consumption and environmental impacts for replacing automotive glass-fiber sheet molding compound.” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 184, pp. 92-100, 2018.

. Miller. “Natural fiber textile reinforced bio-based composites: mechanical properties, creep, and environmental impacts.” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 198, pp. 612-623, 2018.

. S. Gowthaman, K. Nakashima, S. Kawasaki. “A state-of-the-art review on soil reinforcement technology using natural plant fiber materials: past findings, present trends and 123 future directions.” Materials, vol. 11, pp. 553, 2018.

. M. Paiva, A. Sousa, S. Politi, C. Da Silva. “Effect of Buriti Fiber on the Physical Properties of Portland Cement Mortars.” Revista Tecnológica, vol. 25, pp. 91-102, 2016.

. Z. Ehrenbring, F. Tutikian. “Concrete reinforced with natural fibers and recycled fibers,” presented at the International Solid Waste Forum. Porto Alegre, Brazil, 2016.

. C. Ferreira, A. Thomé. “Use of construction and demolition waste as reinforcement of a basalt residual soil, serving as a base for surface foundations.” Theory and Practice in Civil Engineering, pp. 1-12, 2011.

. J. Hsieh. Computed Tomography: Principles, Design, Artifacts, and Recent Advances. Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 2009, pp. 574

. R. Andreucci. Industrial Radiology. São Paulo, BR: ABENDI, 2013.

. L. F. Pires; J. A. Borges, O. O. Bacchi, K. Reichardt. “Twenty-five years of computed tomography in soil physics: A literature review of the Brazilian contribution.” Soil and Tillage Research, vol. 110, pp. 197-210, 2010.

. JR. Al-Heety, M.Z. Shanshal. “Integration of seismic refraction tomography and electrical resistivity tomography in engineering geophysics for soil characterization.” Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol. 9, pp. 73, 2016.

. F.G. Xavier. “Study of the technological potential of using iron ore tailings in blocks to cover structures reinforced by geosynthetics in Ouro Preto-MG”. Monograph, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Brazil, 2019.

. R. Helliwell, J. Sturrock, M. Grayling, R. Tracy, J. Flavel, M. Young, J. Mooney. “Applications of X-ray computed tomography for examining biophysical interactions and structural development in soil systems: a review.” European Journal of Soil Science, vol. 64, pp. 279–297, 2013.

. C. Nascimento. “Evaluation of the properties of recycled aggregate from civil construction for use in a final landfill cover system.” Thesis, University of Pernambuco, Brazil, 2019.

. P. Palanisamy, S. Kumar. “Effect of molarity in geo polymer earth brick reinforced with fibrous coir wastes using sandy soil and quarry dust as fine aggregate.” Case studies in construction materials, vol. 8, pp. 347-358, 2018.

. R. Sridhar, T. Prathapkumar. “Comparison on shear strength of coir mat and coir fiber reinforced sand.” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 22, pp. 1015–1023, 2017.

. V. Anggraini. “Potential of coir fibres as soil reinforcement.” Pertanika Journal of Scholarly Research Reviews, vol. 2, 2016.

. T. Maliakal, S. Thiyyakkandi.” Influence of randomly distributed coir fibers on shear strength of clay.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, vol. 31, pp. 425-433, 2013.

. R. Oliveira. “Evaluation of soil-cement reinforced with babassu coconut fibers for the production of ecological modular bricks.” Monograph, Federal University of Pará, Brazil, 2011.

. Brazilian Association of Technical Standards – ABNT. 1990. NBR 12007: Soil - One-dimensional densification test - Test method. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT.

. J. Munkholm, J. Heck, B. Deen, T. Zidar. “Relationship between soil aggregate strength, shape and porosity for soils under different long-term management.” Geoderma, pp. 52–59, 2013.

. R. Elliot, J. Heck. “A comparison of optical and X-ray CT technique for void analysis in soil thin section”. Geoderma, pp. 60–70, 2007.

. F. Costa. “X-ray computed tomography applied to the characterization of porous soil space.” Thesis, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, 2017.

. Oliveira Jr. “Geotechnical behavior of compacted mixtures of clayey soil with short coconut fibers.” Thesis, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, 2018.

. K.P.V. Lafayette. “Geological-geotechnical study of the erosion process on slopes in the Metropolitan Park Armando de Holanda Cavalcanti - Cabo de Santo Agostinho/PE.” Thesis, University of Pernambuco, Brazil, 2006.

. WU, Y, LI, Y, NIU, B. “Assessment of the mechanical properties of sisal fiber-reinforced silty clay using triaxial shear tests”. The Scientific World Journal, 2014.

. T. Fuji. “Study of mixtures of soil, RCD and virgin and hydrated lime for use in road works.” Thesis, University of Brasília, Brazil, 2012.




How to Cite

Santos, M. J. P. dos ., Lafayette , K. P. V. ., & da Silva, T. A. . (2021). Evaluation of X-Ray Computed Tomography in an Erodible Soil Reinforced with Babassu Coconut Fibers and Construction Waste. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 76(1), 71–83. Retrieved from https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/6610