Impact of the Degrading Toxicity of Metallic Trace Elements on the Flora and Fauna of the Matete River in Kinshasa
AbstractThis work presents the results for which the general objective pursued in this study is to assess the impact of the degrading toxicity of metallic trace elements on the flora and fauna of the Matete river in Kinshasa. This evaluation was studied through the understanding of the accumulative power of species of flora and fauna in this same ecosystem with metallic elements. In particular: Pistia stratiotes (manganese): 10.7 ± 1.1 and 236.4 × 101 ± 248.8 mg / kg, iron: from 187.5 × 101 ± 61.9 and 500.0 × 101 ± 0, 1 mg / kg, potassium: between 314.8 ± 12.1 and 119.0 × 103 ± 6981.1 mg / kg, calcium: <10 ± <0.3 and 252200 ± 1892.8 mg / kg, cobalt: <3.0 ± <0.2, nickel: <0.5 ± <0.1 and 20.6 ± 0.5 mg / kg, zinc: 1.9 ± 0.0 and 98.7 × 101 ± 0.0 mg / kg, copper: <0.5 ± <0.1 and 79.4 ± 1.2 mg / kg, aluminum: 56.3 × 101 ± 53.1 and 5229.0 × 101 ± 583, 8 mg / kg, chromium: <1.0 ± <0.1 mg / kg and 21.6 ± 4.0 mg / kg, cadmium: 2.8 ± 0.3 and 25.6 ± 0.4 mg / kg, lead: 0.5 ± 0.4 and 86.7 ± 5.5 mg / kg and for Lemna minor (manganese): 5.10 ± 0.1 and 5.80 ± 0.3 mg / kg, iron: 49.9 × 101 ± 18.8 and 6784.0 × 101 ± 709.5 mg / kg, potassium: 113.8 ± 4.4 and 2712.0 × 101 ± 98.8 mg / kg, calcium: <10 ± <0.1 and 97830 ± 2073.9 mg / kg, cobalt: <3.0 ± <0.2 mg / kg, nickel: 0.001 ± 0.00 and 0.004 ± 0.00 mg / kg, zinc : 3.12 ± 0.17 and 4.00 ± 0.82 mg / kg, copper: 0.001 ± 0.0001 and 0.006 ± 0.0004 mg / kg, aluminum: 0.02 ± 0.00 mg / kg and 0.15 ± 0.06 mg / kg, chromium: 0.001 ± 0.0001 and 0.003 ± 0.0002 mg / kg, cadmium: 0.0004 ± 0.00002 and 0.001 ± 0.00003 mg / kg, lead: 0.001 ± 0.00 and 0.004 ± 0.0002 mg / kg. On the other hand, Oreochromis niloticus (Calcium): <0.1 × 102 ± 0.3 and 25 220.0 × 101 ± 48094.1mg / kg, Iron: 10350.7 × 101 ± 5131.7 and 102158.0 × 101 ± 27182.7,Manganese: 1.815 × 101 ± 0.931mg / kg and 7.945 × 101 ± 2.131 mg / kg, Cobalt: <6.0 ± <0.0 mg / kg, Nickel: <0.501 ± <0.049 mg / kg and 61.503 ± 1.302 mg / kg, Zinc: <0.736 ± 0.015 mg / kg and 42.923 × 101 ± 3.176 mg / kg, Copper: 1.902 ± 0.007 mg / kg and 35.302 ± 0.247 mg / kg, Aluminum: 1.414 × 103 ± 70.464mg / kg and 9.493 × 103 ± 147.214 mg / kg, Chromium: <1.0001 ± <0.0408 and <1.0003 ± <0.0105, Cadmium: 0.2002 ± 0.0718 mg / kg and 19.0001 ± 0.8981mg / kg and Lead: <1, 0002 ± <0.0051 mg / kg and 3.9004 ± 0.0895 mg / kg of dry matter. One of the serious causes of their persistence is their biomagnification in the food chain. This is why the response of Pistia stratiotes, water lettuce and Lemna minor from the nine sampling sites of the Matete river to large and / or low concentrations of metallic elements is reflected either by an inhibition of photosynthetic processes (antagonism and effect synergistic) and the instinct of certain species. However, this ecosystem offers an ecological niche low in dissolved oxygen and a nutrient-poor and toxic diet for the species that live there. In this regard, the flora of the Matete river accumulates the metallic elements in a significant way and according to the diversity of the environments and the size of the species.
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