Palynological Study of Vida-1 Well, Central Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria
AbstractPalynological examination of forty (40) microscopic slides prepared from direct specimen of Agbada Formation core samples between (6,963ft – 9,866 ft), were carried out with a view to determining the age and paleoenviroment of deposition. Standard palynological procedure was followed and the slides yielded excellent to well preserved distribution of miospore assemblages. Diagnosis uncovered one hundred and twenty-three (123) miospores. Delineation of the well section produced four palynological zones based on stratigraphic distribution. Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni/P700 Zone characterized by the quantitative base occurrence of Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni and co-occurrence of Belskipollis elegans, Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni, Pachydermites diederix, Gemmastephanocolporites sp., Echiperiporites estalae, Verrutricolporites rotundiporus and Stephanoporites echinatus. Magnastriatites howardii/P600 Zone characterized by quantitative base occurrence of Praedapollis flexibilis and co-occurrence of Magnastriatites howardii, Peregrinipollis nigericus, Praedapollis flexibilis Spirosyncolpites brunni, Verrucatosporites usmensis, Retitricolporites irregularis. Verrucatosporites usmensis /P500 Zone characterized by the co-occurrence of Arecipites exilimuratus, Verrucatosporites usmensis and Gemmamonoporites sp. Verrucatosporites usmensis /P400 Zone characterized by the quantitative base occurrence of Verrucatosporites usmensis and co-occurrences of Psilatricolporites crassus, Pachydermites diederix and Monoporites annulatus. Paleoecological grouping of the recovered palynomorphs assemblages revealed the presence of mangrove, freshwater swamp, coastal. riverine and savana vegetation types. However, the assemblages retrieved are dominated by terrestrially derived palynomorphs, such as spores (ferns and fungi) and pollens alongside depicting the brackish to freshwater colonial algae, marine indicator palynomorphs, including dinoflagellate cysts and foraminiferal linings, which were relatively low, indicating paralic environment with the shaly sediments being deposited in a marginally marine environment under a terrestrial influence. The palynofloral assemblage within this interval suggests deposition in environments fluctuating between marine and nearshore. The interval in the well section is dated Late Eocene - Middle Miocene.
. A. Whiteman. Nigeria: Its Petroleum Geology, Resources and Potential. Grahamand Trotman, London, 1982, p.394.
. P. Stacher. “Present understanding of the Niger Delta hydrocarbon habitat,” in Geology of Deltas, M. N. Oti and Postma, G. eds., A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam: 1995, pp.257-267.
. A. J. Short and K. L. Stauble. “Outline of the geology of the Niger Delta.” American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol. 51, pp.761-779, 1967.
. B. D. Evamy, J. Haremboure, P. Kamerling, W. A. Knap, F. A. Molloy and P. H. Rowlands, “Hydrocarbon habitat of Tertiary Niger Delta.” American Association of Petroleum Geologist Bulletin vol.62, pp.1–39, 1978.
. O. Legoux. “Quelques espèces e pollen caractéristiques du Neogene du Nigeria.” Bulletin Centres Recherche Exploration-Production d’Elf- Aquitaine, vol. 2(2), pp.265–317, 1978.
. J. J. Germeraad, C. A. Hopping and J. Muller. “Palynology of Tertiary sediments from tropical areas.” Review of Paleobotany and Palynology, vol. 6(3-4), pp.189-348, 1968.
. M. D. Simmons, M. D. Bidgood, P. Brenac, P. D. Crevello, J. J. Lambiase and C.K. Morley. “Microfossil assemblages as proxies for precise palaeorenvironmental determination-an example from Miocene sediments of northwest Borneo,” in Biostratigraphy in Production and Development Geology, R.W. Jones and M.D. Simmons, eds., Geological Society Special Publication, vol.152, 1999, p.219.
. T. J. A. Reijers. “Selected chapters on Geology: Sedimentary Geology, Sequence Stratigraphy,” Three case studies and a Field Guide. SPDC, Warri, 1996, p 197.
. H. Kulke. “Nigeria,” in Regional petroleum geology of the world, part II: Africa, America, Australia and Antarctica, H. Kulke ed., Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 1995, pp.143-172.
. A. A. Avbovbo. “Tertiary lithostratigraphy of Niger Delta.” American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol. 62(2), pp.295–300, 1978.
. M. L. W. Tuttle, R. R. Charpentier and M. E. Brownfield. “The Niger delta petroleum system: Niger delta province, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea,” Africa: USGS Open-file report 99-50-H. 1999.
. P. O. Onyeanusi, M. U. Udoh, I. O. Imasuen, S. Tsaku, H. E. Omodolor and B. O. Aduomahor. “The Effect of Facies Changes on Hydrocarbon Production in Osisioma Field, Onshore, Niger Delta,” Nigeria. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2018; 6(2):35-40. doi: 10.12691/jgg-6-2-1.
. K. Faegri and J. Iversen. Textbook of Pollen Analysis. 4th edn. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1989.
. J. R. L. Allen. “Late Quaternary Niger Delta, and adjacent areas-sedimentary environments and lithofacies.” American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol. 49, pp.547-600, 1965.
. H. Doust and E. Omatsola. “Niger Delta,” in Divergent/Passive margin basin, J.D. Edwards and P. A. Santogrossi, eds., AAPG Memoir, vol. 48, 1989, pp.201-238.
. C. Hoorn. Miocene Palynostratigraphy and Paleoenvironments of Northwestern Amazonia. Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, 1994.
. N. O. Frederiksen. “Review of Early Tertiary sporomorph paleoecology.” American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Contribution Series No. 15. Dallas, American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation, 1985.
. M. A. Sowunmi. “Palynological studies in Niger Delta,” in The Early History of the Niger Delta, E. J. Alagoa, F.N. Anozie and N. Nzewunwa, eds. Helmat Buske Verlag Hamburg, Uk., 1987, pp.29-59.
. F. A. Lucas and T. J. Fregene. “Palynological Zonation of Oligocene to Early Miocene Sediments of Greater Ughelli Depobelt, Niger Delta Basin.” Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, Vol. 21 (7), pp.1341-1345, Dec, 2017.
. R. J. Morley. “Biostratigraphic characterization of Systems Tracts in Tertiary sedimentary basins.” Proceeding of the International Symposium on Sequence Stratigraphy in S.E. Asia, 1995, pp.49–71.
. I. N. Oloto. Palynology and sequence Stratigraphy: Case study from Nigeria. Legacy Integrations Nig. Ltd. 2009, p254.
. F. E. Oboh, M. B. Salami and J. L. Chapman. “Palynological interpretation of the palaeoenvironments of Miocene strata of the well Igbomotoru-1, Niger Delta.” Journal of Micropalaeontology vol. 11, pp.1–6, 1992.
. O. E. Ige, K. Datta, K. Sahai, and K. K. Rawat. “Palynology studies of sediments from North Chioma-3 well, Niger Delta and its palaeoenvironmental interpretations.” American Journal of Applied Sciences vol.8 (12), pp.1249–1257, 2011.
. F. E. Oboh. “Sedimentological and palynological characteristics of the E2.0 reservoir (Middle Miocene) in the Kolo Creek Field, Niger Delta,” in Geology of Deltas. M. N. Oti, and G. Postma, eds., A. A. Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam, 1995, pp.243-256.
. E. U. Durugbo, O. T. Ogundipe and O. K. Ulu. “Palynological evidence of Pliocene- Pleistocene climatic variations from the Western Niger Delta, Nigeria.” International Journal of Botany vol. 6(4), pp.351–370, 2010.
. E. U. Durugbo and M. A. Olayiwola. “Palynological dating and palaeoenvironments of the M1 well, Middle Miocene, Niger Delta, Nigeria.” Palaeontologia Africana, vol. 52, pp.45-47, July, 2017.
. O. F. Adebayo, A. E. Orijemie and A.O. Aturamu. “Palynology of Bog-1 well, southeastern Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria.” International Journal of Science and Technology vol. 2(4), pp.214–222, 2012.
. G. C. Soronnandi-Ononiwu, A. O. Omoboriowo and Y. Yikarebogha. “Palynology and paleoenviromental study of Akukwa-1 well, Niger delta and Anambra basins, Nigeria.” International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, vol. 3 (2), pp.297-304, 2014.
. M. A. Sowunmi. Late Quaternary environmental changes in Nigeria. Pollen et spores 23(1), 125–148. 1981a.
. M. A. Sowunmi. “Aspects of Late Quaternary vegetation changes in West Africa.” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 8, pp.457–474, 1981b.
. V. Mosbrugger and T. Utescher. “The coexistence approach-a method for quantitative reconstructions of Tertiary terrestrial palaeoclimate data using plant fossils.” Elsiveir. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol.134, pp.61- 86, 1997.
. F. A, Lucas. “Miospores and Geological Boundaries in Maastrichtian to Lutetian Succession of Ajire-1 well, Anambra Basin, Nigeria.” International Journal of Science and Advanced Innovative Research, vol. 2(1), pp.74- 84, 2017.
. J. Maley. “The African rain forest – main characteristics of changes in vegetation and climate from the Upper Cretaceous to the Quaternary.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. 104B, pp.31-73, 1996.
. O. H. Adekanmbi and M. A. Sowunmi. “Palynological biosignals and depositional environments within the Niger Delta basin, Nigeria.” Nigerian Journal of Botany, vol. 20, pp.457–466, 2007.
. N. E. Ajaegwu, B. I. Odoh, E.O. Akpunonu, I. I. Obiadi and E. K. Anakwuba. “Late Miocene to Early Pliocene Palynostratigraphy and palaeoenvironments of ANE-1 Well eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria.” Journal of Mining and Geology vol. 48(1), 31–43, 2012.
Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.