The Role of Cognitive and Affective in Reflecting Subjective Well-Being

  • Muhammad Shodikul Haq Faculty of Psychology, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Fatwa Tentama Faculty of Psychology, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Keywords: Affective, cognitive, construct reliability, construct validity, subjective well-being


This research aims to describe the subjective well-being of nurses, to analyze the construct validity and reliability of the subjective well-being scale, and to determine the components that form the construct of the subjective well-being scale. The subjective well-being scale is measured by using two components, namely cognitive and affective components. The subjects of this research were 62 nurses who work at a hospital in Palu. The data were collected using the subjective well-being scale. The data were then analyzed using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) SmartPLS 3.2.8 program with a reflective construct through the CFA 2nd Order. Based on the analysis results of the construct validity and reliability, the components and indicators that form the nurses' subjective well-being are considered valid and reliable. It shows that all the components and indicators are able to reflect and form subjective well-being. Therefore, the measurement model can be accepted because the theory that describes subjective well-being has been in accordance with the empirical data obtained.


. Depkes RI. Occupational health to workers. 2011.

. Z. Sabiq and Miftahuddin. “Effects of optimism, social support, and demographic factors on subjective well-being of nurses [in Indonesian].” JP31. vol. 6, no. 2, 2017.

. W. Pavot and E. Diener. Review of the satisfaction with life scale. New York: Springer, 2009.

. F.A. Garnida and S. Qadariah,. “Descriptive study of subjective well being in female nurses in inpatient Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung [in Indonesian].” Prosiding Psikologi, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 360-367, 2017.

. A. Öztürk and T. Mutlu. “The relationship between attachment style, subjective well-being, happiness and social anxiety among university students.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 1772-1776, 2010.

. E. Diener, P. Kesebir and R. Lucas. “Benefits of Accounts of well-being for societies and for psychological science.” Applied Psychology, vol. 57, pp. 37-53, 2008.

. E. Diener and M.Y. Chan. “Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity.” Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-43, 2011.

. E. Diener. “Subjective well-being.” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 95, no. 3, 542-575, 1984.

. E.P. Samsari and S.G. Soulis. “Problem solving and resilience self-efficacy as factors of subjective well-being in Greek individuals with and without physical disabilities.” International Journal of Special Education, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 938-953, 2019.

. H.Y. Qu and C.M. Wang. “Study on the relationships between nurses’ job burnout and subjective well-being.” Chinese Nursing Research, vol. 2, no. 2-3, pp. 61–66, 2015.

. W.R. Wilson. “Correlates of avowed happiness.” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 67, pp. 294–306, 1967.

. E. Diener, E. Suh and S. Oishi. “Recent findings on subjective well-being,. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 24, pp. 25-41, 1997.

. E.D. Diener, R.A. Emmons, R.J. Larsen and S. Griffin. “The satisfaction with life scale.” Journal of Personality Assessment, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 71-75, 1985.

. D. Watson, L.A. Clark and A. Tellegen. “Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1063-1070, 1988.

. E. Diener. “Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index.” American Psychologist, vol. 55, pp. 34-43, 2000.

. S. Lyubomirsky. and H.S. Lepper. “A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation.” Social Indicators Research, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 137–155, 1999.

. L. Quezada, R. Landero and M.T. González. “A validity and reliability study of the subjective happiness scale in Mexico.” J Happiness Well-Being, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 90-100, 2016.

. S. Oishi. “The psychology of residential mobility implications for the self, social relationships, and well-being.” Perspectives on Psychological Science, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 5-21, 2010.

. L. Lu. “In pursuit of happiness: The cultural psychological study of subjective well-being.” Chinese Journal of Psychology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 99-112, 2005.

. E. Diener and M. Diener. “Crosscultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 653-663, 1995.

. Y. Uchida and Y. Ogihara. “Personal or interpersonal construal of happiness: A cultural psychological perspective.” International Journal of Wellbeing, pp. 354-369, 2012.

. E. Diener, R.E. Lucas and S. Oishi. “Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction”. Handbook of Positive Psychology, vol. 2, pp. 63-73, 2002.

. J.E. Russell. “Promoting subjective well-being at work.” Journal of Careers Assessment, vol. 16, pp. 118-132, 2008.

. C.N. Scollon, C. Kim-Prieto and E. Diener. “Experience sampling: Promises and pitfalls, strengths and weaknesses.” Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 4, pp. 5-34, 2003.

. E. Diener. The science of well-being: The collected works of Ed Diener. New York: Springer, 2009.

. B. Singh and R. Udainiya. “Self-efficacy and well-being of adolescents.” Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 227-232, 2009.

. M. Pinquart and S. Sörensen. “Influences of socioeconomic status, social network, and competence on subjective well-being in later life: A meta-analysis.” Psychology and Aging, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 187-224, 2000.

. A. Denovan and A. Macaskill, “Stress and subjective well-being among first year UK undergraduate students.” Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 505-525, 2017.

. A. Hansen, J.H. Buitendach and H. Kanengoni. “Psychological capital, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction amongst educators in the Umlazi Region in South Africa.” SA Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2015.

. J.J. Froh, C. Yurkewicz and T.B. Kashdan. “Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences.” Journal of Adolescence, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 633-650, 2009.

. S.O. Utsey, J.N. Hook, N. Fischer and B. Belvet. “Cultural orientation, ego resilience, and optimism as predictors of subjective well-being in African Americans.” The Journal of Positive Psychology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 202-210, 2008.

. H. Latan. Structural equation modeling concepts and applications using LISREL 8.80 [in Indonesian]. Bandung: Alfabeta, 2012.

. T.R. Hinkin, J.B. Tracey and C.A. Enz. “Scale construction: Developing reliable and valid measurement instruments.” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 100-120, 1997.

. H.M. Jogiyanto. Concept and application of variant based structural equation modeling in business research [in Indonesian].” Yogyakarta: UPP STIM YKPN, 2011.

. J.F. Hair, G.T.M. Hult, C. Ringle and M. Sarstedt. A primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). New York: Sage Publications, 2016.

. W. Abdillah and J. Hartono. Partial Least Square (PLS): Alternative Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in business research [in Indonesian]. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi, 2015.

. H. Akhtar. “Evaluation of psychometric properties and comparison of subjective well-being constructive measurement models [in Indonesia].” Jurnal Psikologi, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 29-40, 2019.