Validity and Reliability Analysis of the Cyberbullying Scale
AbstractThis study aimed to test the construct validity and construct reliability on the cyberbullying scale, and to examine the forms and indicators reflecting the construct of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying was measured by a cyberbullying scale that referred to the forms of cyberbullying, namely harassment, denigration, flaming, impersonation, masquerading, pseudonym, outing and trickery, and cyberstalking. The populations in this study were 393 2nd grade students at X, Y, Z high schools in Yogyakarta. The sample in this study were 146 students from 6 classes consisting of 93 males and 53 females with an age range of 16-17 years. The sampling technique used cluster random sampling. The cyberbullying scale was adopted as the data collection method. The data of this study were analyzed using Structural Equational Model (SEM) through the SmartPLS 3.2.8 program. Based on the results of the analysis, the forms and indicators creating the construct of cyberbullying were declared as valid and reliable. The most dominant form reflecting cyberbullying was masquerading with a loading factor of 0.879. Meanwhile, the weakest form reflecting cyberbullying was outing and trickery, with a loading factor value of 0.638. This showed that all forms and indicators were able to reflect and form the construct of cyberbullying. Thus, the measurement model could be accepted because the theory that describes cyberbullying is in accordance with empirical data obtained through the subject.
. L. Atzori, A. Iera, and G. Moraboto. “The internet of things: A survey.” Computer Networks, vol. 54, no. 15, pp. 2787-2805, 2010.
. T. Beran and Q. Li. “Cyber-harassment: A study of a new method for an old behavior.” Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 32, no. 3, pp 265, 2005.
. K. R. Cochrane. “Exploring cyberbullying in saskatchewan.” Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Sasktoon, 2008.
. C. L. Nixon. “Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health.” Adolescent health, medicine and therapeutics, vol. 5, no. 143-158, 2014.
. R. Navarro, R. Ruiz-Oliva, E. Larranaga and S. Yubero. “The impact of cyberbullying and social bullying on optimism, global and school-related happiness and life satisfaction among 10-12-year-old schoolchildren.” Applied Research in Quality of Life, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 15-36, 2015.
. M. Yousef, W. Shaher and A. Bellamy. “The impact of cyberbullying on the self-esteem and academic functioning of Arab American middle and high school students.” Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 463-482, 2015.
. J. K. Pilkey. “The nature and impact of cyberbullying on the middle school student.” Doctoral Dissertation, Walden University, United States of America, 2011.
. R. M Kowalski and S. P. Limber. “Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying.” Journal of adolescent health, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. S13-S20, 2013.
. S. K. Schneider, L. O’Donnell, A. Stueve and R. W. S. Coulter. “Cyberbullying, school bullying, and psychological distress: A regional census of high school students.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 171–177, 2012.
. P. Elipe, J. A. Mora-Merchan and L. Nacimiento. “Development and validation of an instrument to assess the impact of cyberbullying: the cybervictimization emotional impact scale.” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 479-485, 2017.
. K. Kopecky and R. Szotkowski. “Cyberbullying, cyber aggression and their impact on the victim–The teacher.” Telematics and Informatics, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 506-517, 2017.
. K. A. Fanti, A. G. Demetriou, and V. V. Hawa. “A longitudinal study of cyberbullying: Examining risk and protective factors.” European Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 168-181, 2012.
. S. Hinduja and J. W. Patchin. “Social influences on cyberbullying behaviors among middle and high school students.” Journal of youth and adolescence, vol. 42, no. 5, pp 711-722, 2013.
. A. Wade and T. Beran. “Cyberbullying: The new era of bullying.” Canadian Journal of School Psychology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 44-61, 2011.
. G. Brewer and J. Kerslake. “Cyberbullying, self-esteem, empathy and loneliness.” Computers in human behavior, vol. 48, pp. 255-260, 2015.
. C. P. Barlett, D. A. Gentile and C Chew. “Predicting cyberbullying from anonymity.” Psychology of Popular Media Culture, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 171, 2016.
. R. Didden, R. H. Scholte, H. Korzilius, J. M. De Moor, A. Vermeulen, M. O’Reilly, … and G.E. Lancioni. “Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings.” Developmental neurorehabilitation, vol. 12 no. 3, pp. 146-151, 2009.
. D. Olweus. “Cyberbullying: An overrated phenomenon?.” European journal of developmental psychology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 520-538, 2012.
. R. Slonje, P. K. Smith and A. Frisen. “Processes of cyberbullying,and feelings of remorse by bullies: A pilot study.” European Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol. 9, pp. 244–259, 2012.
. N. R Crick and K. A. Dodge. “A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment.” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 115, pp. 74 –101, 1994.
. A. Bandura. Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1986.
. C. A. Anderson and B.J Bushman. “Human aggression.” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 53, pp 27–51, 2002.
. S. Chadwick. Impacts of cyberbullying, building social and emotional resilience in schools. Australia: Springer Science & Business Media, 2014.
. N. Willard. Cyberbullying and cyberthreats. Washington: U.S. Department of Education, 2005.
. S. Shariff. Confronting cyber-bullying: What schools need to know to control misconduct and avoid legal consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
. J. W. Patchin and S. Hinduja. Cyberbullying prevention and response. New York. Routledge, 2012.
. P. D. Netzley. How serious a problem is cyberbullying. San Diego: Reference Point Press, 2014.
. M. W. Savage and R. S Tokunaga. “Moving toward a theory: Testing an integrated model of cyberbullying perpetration, aggression, social skills, and Internet self-efficacy.” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 71, pp. 353-361, 2017.
. R. Festl, M. Scharkow and T. Quandt. “Peer influence, internet use and cyberbullying: A comparison of different context effects among German adolescents.” Journal of Children and Media, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 446-462, 2013.
. R. Dredge, J. F. Gleeson and X, Dela Piedad Garcia. “Risk factors associated with impact severity of cyberbullying victimization: A qualitative study of adolescent online social networking.” Cyberpsychology, behavior, and social networking, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 287-291, 2014.
. I. Ghozali and H. Latan. Partial Least Squares, concepts, techniques and applications use the Smartpls 3.0 program for empirical research [in Indonesian]. Semarang: UNDIP Publisher Agency, 2015.
. H. M. Jogiyanto. The concept and application of variance-based Structural Equation Modeling in business research [in Indonesian]. Yogyakarta: UPP STIM YKPN, 2011.
. J. F. Hair. Jr, G. T. M. Hult, C. Ringle and M. Sarstedt. A primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) [in Indonesian]. Los Angles: Sage Publications, 2017.
. W. Abdillah and J. Hartono. Partial Least Square (PLS): Alternative structural equation modeling (SEM) in business research [in Indonesian]. Yogyakarta: Publisher Andi, 2015.
. M. F Wright, B. D. Harper and S. Wachs. “The associations between cyberbullying and callous-unemotional traits among adolescents: The moderating effect of online disinhibition.” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 141, pp. 41-45, 2019.
. S. Hinduja and J. W Patchin. “Cultivating youth resilience to prevent bullying and cyberbullying victimization.” Child Abuse & Neglect, vol. 73, pp. 51–62, 2017.
. C. Barlett, K. Chamberlin and Z. Witkower. “Predicting cyberbullying perpetration in emerging adults: A theoretical test of the Barlett Gentile Cyberbullying Model.” Aggressive Behavior, vol. 43, no. 2, 2016.
. S. You and S. A. Lim. “Longitudinal predictors of cyberbullying perpetration: Evidence from Korean middle school student.” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 89, pp. 172-176, 2016.
. S. Pabian, H. Vandebosch, K. Poels, K. Van Cleemput and S. Bastiaensens. “Exposure to cyberbullying as a bystander: An investigation of desensitization effects among early adolescents.” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 62, pp. 480-487, 2016.
Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.