Feet Microbial Infections

  • Anam Javed Assistant Professor of Zoology, School of Zoology, Minhaj University, Lahore.
  • Gull e Zahra BS researchers, Department of Zoology, University of Sargodha, RCS Campus, Circular Road, Narowal, Pakistan
  • Mehwish Amjad BS researchers, Department of Zoology, University of Sargodha, RCS Campus, Circular Road, Narowal, Pakistan.
Keywords: Microbial foot disorders, improper foot ware, microbial invasion, foot hygiene, foot ulcers


Microbial foot disorders are quite common around the globe. People who usually don’t take care about their foot hygiene and overall health often suffer from serious foot ailments. Causes of these disorders may be poor cleanliness, diabetes miletus, improper foot ware and socks use.  Among them, shoes and socks as remain moist due to sweat and dirt, are a potent source of microbial invasion which may be either of bacterial, fungal or viral origin, sometimes algal too. People of third world countries are more prone to such disorders because of lack of awareness. These issues can be controlled by introducing proper general mass awareness regarding foot care and hygiene and by spreading information regarding foot ulcers and wounds handling to medical staff and common people.


. Javed A, SM Haider, N Akram and M Usman, 2019. Epidemiology of onychomycosis in Gujranwala division-Pakistan. ASRJETS, 58: 113-119.

. Moura IF, MA Ana Dias, E Carvalho, CH de Sousa, 2013. Recent advances on the development of wound dressings for diabetic foot ulcer treatment—A review Liane. Acta Biomaterialia, 9: 7093-7114.

. Rastogi A, S Sukumar, A Hajela, S Mukherjee, P Dutta, SK Bhadada and A Bhansali, 2017. The microbiology of diabetic foot infections in patients recently treated with antibiotic therapy: A prospective study from India. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 31: 407-412.

. Wiwanitkit V, 2019. Tropical Toxic Algae: A Problem in Tropical Clinical Toxicology. Journal of Toxicology Reports, 1(1): 1.

. Xing W, Q Liao, C Viboud, J Zhang, J Sun, JT Wu, Z Chang, F Liu, VJ Fang, Y Zheng, BJ Cowling, JK Varma, JJ Farrar, GM Leung and H Yu, 2012. Hand, foot, and mouth disease in China, 2008-12: an epidemiological study. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, 14: 308-318.

. Javed A, M Usman, N Akram, S Kanwal, I Riaz & S M Haider, 2019. Haya Saudi J Life Sci, 4: 173- 179.

. Ahmad J, 2016. The diabetic foot Author links open overlay panel. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 10: 48-60.

. Sumathi S, J Mariraj, S Shafiyabi, R Ramesh and S Krishna, 2013. Clinic mycological study of dermatophytes. Int J Pharm Biomed Res, 4: 132-4.

. Ghannoum MA, RA Hajjeh, R Scher, N Konnikov, AK Gupta, R Summerbell, S Sullivan, R Daniel, P Krusinski, P Fleckman, P Rich, R Odom, R Aly, D Pariser, M Zaiac, G Rebell, J Lesher, B Gerlach and B Elewski, 2000. A large-scale North American study of fungal isolates from nails: the frequency of onychomycosis, fungal distribution, and antifungal susceptibility patterns. J Am Acad Dermatol, 43: 641-648. 11.

. Gupta AK, HC Jain, CW Lynde, P Macdonald, EA Cooper and RC Summerbell, 2000. Prevalence and epidemiology of onychomycosis in patients visiting physicians’ offices: a multicenter Canadian survey of 15,000 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol, 43: 244-248.

. Becker D, E Langer, M Seemann, G Seemann, I Fell, J Saloga, S Grabbe and EV Stebut, 2011. Clinical efficacy of blue light full body irradiation as treatment option for severe atopic dermatitis, 6.

. Saltoglu N, M Yemisen, O Ergonul, A Kadanali, G Karagoz, A Batirel, O Ak, H Eraksay, ACagatay, A Vatan, G Sengoz, F Pehlivanoglu, T Aslan, Y Akkoyunlu, D Engin, N Can, B Erturk, L Mulazimoglu and M Ozyazar, 2015. Predictors for limb loss among patient with diabetic foot infections: an observational retrospective multicentric study in Turkey. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 21: 659-664.

. Mendes JJ and J Neves, 2012. Diabetic Foot Infections: Current diagnosis and treatment. J Diabetic Foot Complications, 4: 26-45.

. Rodwell GEJ, CL Bayles, L Towersey and R Aly, 2008. The prevalence of dermatophyte infection in patients infected with human immune deficiency virus. International Journal of Dermatology, 47: 339–343.

. Ameen M, 2010. Epidemiology of superficial fungal infections. Clin Dermatol, 28: 197-201.

. Thomas J, GA Jacobson, CK Narkowicz, GM Peterson, H Burnet and C Sharpe, 2010. Toenail onychomycosis: an important global disease burden. J Clin Pharm Ther, 35: 497-519.

. Dorresteijn JAN and GD Valk, 2012. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 28: 101-6.

. Hirschmann JV, GJ Raugi, 2000. Pustular tinea pedis. J Am Acad Dermatol., 42: 132-133.

. Dinh T, F Tecilazich, A Kafanas, J Doupis, C Gnardellis, E Leal, A Tellechea, L Pradhan, TE Lyons, JM Giurini and A Veves, 2012.Mechanisms involved in the development and healing of diabetic foot ulceration. Diabetes, 61: 2937–2947.

. Briganti S and M Picardo, 2003. Antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation and skin diseases. What's new. JEADV, 17 (6): 663-669.

. PashkevichIa A, 1979. Skin lesions caused by contact with blue-green algae. Vestn Dermatol Venerol, 5: 47-51.

. Pilotto L, P Hobson, MD Burch, G Ranmuthugala, R Attewell and W Weightman, 2004. Acute skin irritant effects of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in healthy volunteers. Aust N Z J Public Health, 28: 220-4.

. Puschner B, AC Bautista and C Wong, 2017. Debromoaplysiatoxin as the causative agent of dermatitis in a dog after exposure to freshwater in California. Front. Vet. Sci., 4: 50.

. Bonamonte D, A Filoni, P Verni, G Angelini, 2016.

Dermatitis caused by algae and bryozoans, In: Aquatic Dermatology. pp 127-137.

. Stoyneva MP, HP Dobrev & Plamen St. Pilarski, 2016. Calothrix confervicola agardh ex bornet et flahault (cyanoprokaryota) – a new possible causative agent of see weed dermatitis? биологически факултет, 1:11.

. Rani Z, I Hussain and TS Haroon, 2003. Common allergens in shoe dermatitis: Our experience in Lahore, Pakistan. Int J Dermatol, 42: 605-607.

. Chowdhuri S and S Ghosh, 2007. Epidemio-allergological study in 155 cases of footwear dermatitis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol, 73: 319-322.

. Suhail M, A Ejaz and K Jameel, 2009. Value of patch testing with indigenous battery of allergens in shoe dermatitis. J Pakistan Ass of Dermatol, 19: 66-73.

. Gamez L, I Reig, N Marti, A Revert and E Jorda, 2011. Allergic contact dermatitis to footwear in children. Actas Dermosifiliogr, 102: 154-155.

. Landeck L, W Uter and SM John, 2012. Patch test characteristics of patients referred for suspected contact allergy of the feet-retrospective 10-year cross-sectional study of the IVDK data. Contact Dermatitis, 66: 271-278.

. Shackelford KE and DV Belsito, 2002. The etiology of allergic-appearing foot dermatitis: A 5-year retrospective study. J Am Acad Dermatol, 47: 715-721.

. Holden CR and DJ Gawkrodger, 2005. 10 years' experience of patch testing with a shoe series in 230 patients: Which allergens are important? Contact Dermatitis, 53: 37-39.

. Warshaw EM, DR Boralessa, HI Maibach, D Sasseville, BV Donald, AZ Kathryn, FF Jr. Joseph, ST James, CGT Mathias, FF Anthony, AV De Leo, GM Jr James, JS Frances, DP Melanie and LR Robert, 2010. Positive patch-test reactions to iodopropynyl butyl carbamate: Retrospective analysis of North American Contact Dermatitis Group data, from 1998 to 2008. Dermatitis, 21: 303-310.

. Nardelli A, M Taveirne, J Drieghe, A Carbonez, H Degreef and A Goossens, 2005. The relation between the localization of foot dermatitis and the causative allergens in shoes: A 13-year retrospective study. Contact Dermatitis, 53: 201-206.

. María JOS, AM Esteve, AR García, DF Subiabre, LL Martínez and NV Zaragoza, 2017. Dermatitis of the Foot: Epidemiologic and Clinical Features in 389 Children.

. Muehlenbachs A, J Bhatnagar, and SR Zaki, 2015. Tissue tropism, pathology, and pathogenesis of enterovirus infection. J Pathol, 235: 217–228.

. Bowering CK, 2001. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy. Can Fam Physician, 47: 1007–1016.

. Chong PST and DP Cros, 2004. Technology literature review: quantitative sensory testing. Muscle Nerve, 29: 734-747.

. England J.D, Asbury A.K, 2004. Peripheral neuropathy Lancet, 363: 9427, 2151-2161.

. Tesfaye S, Boulton AJM, Dyck PJ, Freeman R, Horowitz M, Kempler P, et al, 2010. Diabetic neuropathies: update on definitions, diagnostic criteria, estimation of severity, and treatments. Diabetes Care, 33: 2285-2293.

. Mazen S, 2008. Diabetic foot infection. Am Farm Physician, 78: 71- 9.

. Vergara GJ, JR Ángel, TS Adrián, AC Francisco, SG Anuar, ES Samuel, SO Angel and HN Emmenuel, 2013. Vaorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens; Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 3: 776-9.

. Tiwari RR, 2005. Child labor in footwear industry: Possible occupational health hazards. Indian J Occup and Environ Med, 9: 7-9.

. Wiryodiningrat S, 2008. Pengetahuan bahan pembuatan sepatu/ alas kaki. 1st ed. Citra Media, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

. Brown S and NJ Reynolds, 2006. Atopic and non-atopic eczema. BMJ, 332: 584–588.

. Myers BMJ and GHK Khurana, 2010. Eczema in early life: genetics, the skin barrier, and lessons learned from birth cohort studies. J Pediatr, 157: 704–714.

. Roekevisch E, PI Spuls, D Kuester, J Limpens and J Schmitt, 2014. Efficacy and safety of systemic treatments for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis: a systematic review. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 133: 429–438.

. Bakker K and P Riley, 2005. The year of the diabetic foot. Diabetes Voice, 50: 11-4.

. Bakker K, 2006. Multidisciplinary team managing diabetic foot has amputations by 34% which is quite impressive (Interview). Pulse International, 7: 1-2.

. Pinto A, A Tuttolomondo, D Di Raimondo, P Fernandez, PS La, DM Gati and G Licata, 2008. Cardiovascular risk profile and morbidity in subjects affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without diabetic foot. Metabolism, 57: 676-82.

. McCulloch D, G Dilek, S Tuglular, H Onder, A Altun, A Archer and S Akalin, 2013.Awareness of diabetic foot disease in a group of Turkish and English patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Assessment of the status and the efficacy of diabetic foot education programs. Turkish J Endocrinol Metab, 2: 65–70.

. Ekore R, I Ajayi, A Arije and J Ekore, 2010. Knowledge of and attitude to foot care amongst type 2 diabetes patients attending a university-based primary care clinic in Nigeria. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med, 2: 1–3.

. Lincoln NB, KA Radford and FL Game, 2008.Education for secondary prevention of foot ulcers in people with diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Jeffcoate WJ Diabetologia, 51: 1954-61.

. Ford I, MA Cotter, NE Cameron and M Greaves, 2001. The effects of treatment with alpha-lipoid acid or evening primrose oil on vascular hemostatic and lipid risk factors, blood flow and peripheral nerve conduction in streptozocin- -diabetic rat. Metabolism, 50: 868-75.

. Aguirre CF, GJ Vergara, MR Villalobos, GJ Javier López, VG Navarrete and SS Estrada, 2006. Ursolic acid mediates the vasorelaxant activity of Lepechinia caulenses via NO release in isolated rat thoracic aorta. Life Sci,79: 1062-8.

. Abreu OH, EP Castillo, RI León, MI Barajas, MR Villalobos, CJ González, GJ Vergara and SS Estrada, 2009. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of tilianin isolated from Agastache mexicana are mediated by NO/cGMP pathway and potassium channel opening. Biochem Pharmacol,78: 54-61.

. Li L, B Zhang, Y Tao, Y Wang, H Wei, J Zhao, R Huang and Z Pei, 2009. Dl-3-n -butylphthalide protects endothelial cells against oxidative / nitrosative stress mitochondrial damage and subsequent cell death - after oxygen glucose deprivation in vitro. Brain Res, 1290: 91-101.

. Vergara GJ, CF Aguirre, EP Castillo, MA Arroyo, EAL López and MR Villalobos, 2010. Micropropagation and vasorelaxant activity of Laelia autumnalis (orchidaceae). Nat Prod Res, 24: 106-14.

. Zhang T, 2010. 3-n-butylphtalide (NBP) reduces apoptosis and enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) up- -regulation in diabetic rats. Neurol Res, 32: 390-6.

. Torres MP, M Figueroa, OA Hernández, MI Barajas, GV Navarrete and SS Estrada, 2011. Vasorelaxant effect of flavonoids through calmodulin inhibition. Bioorg Med Chem, 19: 542-6.

. Vallejo PR, OH Abreu, GJ Vergara, PC Millán, A Mejía, MI Barajas and SS Estrada, 2012. Ex vivo study of vasorelaxant activity induced by phenanthrene derivatives isolated from Maxillaria densa. J Nat Prod, 75: 2241-5.

. Cunha GH, MO de Moraes, FV Fechine, FA Frota Bezerra, ER Silveira, KM Canuto and M.E.A. de Moraes, 2013. Vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects of methanolic fraction of the essential oil of Alpinia zerumber. Vascul Pharmacol, 58, 337-45.

. Vergara GJ, EP Castillo, MR Villalobos and SS Estrada, 2013. Vasorelaxant effect of Laelia speciosa and Laelia anceps: two orchids as potential sources for isolation of bioactive molecules. L Appl Pharm Sci, 7: 34-7.

. Liao SJ, JW Lin, Z Pei, CL Liu, JS Zeng and RX Huang, 2009. Enhanced angiogenesis with dl-3n-butylphtalide treatment after focal cerebral ischemia in RHRSP. Brain Res, 1289: 69-78.

. Piedra MT, M Figueroa, OH Abreu, MI Barajas, GN Vázquez and SS Estrada, 2011. Vasorelaxant effect of flavonoids through calmodulin inhibition. Bioorg Med Chem, 19: 542-6.

. Huang JZ, YZ Chen, M Su, HF Zheng, YP Yang, J Chen and CF Liu, 2010. dl-3-n-butylphtalide prevents oxidative damage and reduces mitochondrial dysfunction in an MPP (+)-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett, 475: 89-94.

. Kolarovic JJ, M Popovic, J Zlinská, S Trivic and M Vojnovic, 2010. Antioxidant activities of celery and parsley juices in rats treated with doxorubicin. Molecules, 15: 6193-204.

. Li J, Y Li, M Ogle, X Zhou, M Song, SP Yu and L Wei, 2010. Dl-3- -n-butylphthalide prevents neuronal cell death after focal cerebral ischemia in mice via the JNK pathway. Brain Res, 1369: 216-20.

. Peng Y, J Sun, S Hon, AN Nylander, W Xia, Y Feng, X Wang and CA Lemere, 2010. L-3-n-butylphtalide improves cognitive impairment and reduces amyloid-beta in a transgenic model of Alzheimer´s disease. J Neurosci, 30: 8180-9.

. Yang Y, W Sang, M Zhou and G Ren, 2010. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of 11 celery cultivars. J Food Sci, 75: 9-13.

. Jung WS, I M Chung, SH Kim, MY Kim, A Ahmad and N. Praveen, 2011. In vitro antioxidant activity, total phenolics and flavonoids from celery (Apium graveolens) leaves. J Med Plants Res, 5: 7022-30.

. Fazel S and RK Singia, 2012. Review on the pharmacognostical pharmacological characterization of Apium graveolens Linn. Indo Global J Pharmaceut Seimas, 2: 36-42.

. Kangyong L, J Huang, R Chen, T Zhang, L Shen, J Yang and X Sun, 2012. Protection against neurotoxicity by an autophagic mechanism. Braz J Med Biol Res, 45: 401-7.

. Nagella P, A Ahmad, SJ Kim and IM Chung, 2012. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and larvicidal effects of essential oil from leaves of Apium graveolens. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol, 34: 205-9.

. Xiong N, J Huang, C Chen, Y Zhao, Z Zhang, M Jia, Z Zhang, L Hou, H Yang, X Cao, Z Liang, Y Zhang, S Sun, Z Lin and T Wang, 2012. Dl-3-n-butylphtalide, a natural antioxidant, protects dopamine neurons in rotenone models for Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging, 33: 1777-91.

. Zhang T, W Yan, Q Li, J Fu, K Liu, W Jia, X Sun and X Liu, 2011. 3-n-butylphtalide (NBP) attenuated neuronal autophagy and amyloid-beta expression in diabetic mice subjected to brain ischemia. Neurol Res, 33: 396-4.

. Zhang L, WH Yu, YX Wang, C Wang, F Zhao, W Qi, MW Chan, Y Huang, SMW Maria, D Jinghui and DT Yew, 2012. DL-3-n-butylphtalide an antioxidant agent, prevents neurological deficits and cerebral injury following stroke per functional analysis, magnetic resonance imaging and histological assessment. Curr Neurovasc Res, 9: 167-75.

. Bus SA, JJ van Netten, LA Lavery, MS Monteiro, A Rasmussen, Y Jubiz and P.E. Price, 2016. International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot guidance on the prevention of foot ulcers in at-risk patients with diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 32: 16-24.

. Hinchliffe R, J Brownrigg, J Apelqvist, ZJ Boyko, R Fitridge, JL Mills, J Reekers, CP Shearman, RE Zierler and NC Schaper, 2016. International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot guidance on the diagnosis, prognosis and management of peripheral artery disease in patients with foot ulcers in diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 32: 37-44.