Fibre Characteristics of Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf. Wood as Indices of its Suitability for Papermaking
AbstractThe fibre characteristics of Delonix regia, a fast and deciduous tropical tree with form like leaves that is considered one of the most beautiful trees in the world was evaluated to assess its potential for pulp and paper making. Three trees of D. regia were used for the study, they were obtained at different locations within University of Ibadan main campus, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Samples were collected at base (10%), middle (50%) and top (90%) portion of the merchantable height. At each sampling height, strips of 2.5cm were removed from the centre of the discs and divided into 3 zones namely: corewood, middlewood and outerwood based on the relative distance from the pith. Slivers were obtained from each of the zones and macerated in equal volume of glacial aceticacid and 30% hydrogen peroxide at 80oC in an oven. Data were subjected to statistical analysis of 3×3×3 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design (CRD) and Mean±SEM. However, a follow-up test was carried out using the least significant difference test (LSD) at 5% level of probability. A total of twenty whole fibres were measured in swollen conditions with a calibrated eye piece microscope from each sampling zone for fibre characteristics evaluation viz: fibre length (FL), fibre diameter (FD), lumen width (LW), cell wall thickness (WT), runkel ratio (RR), Coefficient of rigidity (CR), Slenderness ratio (SR), Flexibility ratio (FR), F-factor (FF) and solid factor (SF). The results obtained show that Delonix regia has the following mean value: FL (1.34mm), FD (39.42µM), LW (26.83µM), WT (6.49µM), RR (0.55%), CR (16.95%), SR (36.03%), FR (68.45%), FF (236.33) and SL (1390408.51). Based on the derived value such as the Runkel ratio of 0.55 which is less than 1 compared favourably with other known species for pulp and paper making. The values indicate the suitability of the specie for pulp and paper production in a place where there is shortage of wood material for this purpose.
. M. Garside. (2019). Paper Industry - Statistics and Facts, Chemical and Resources bulletin publication.
. World Resources Institute and A. T. Keaney. (2008). Rattling supply chains: The effect of environmental trends on input cost for the fast-moving consumer goods industry. Washington, DC.
. A. O. Oluwadare, A. F. Gilbert and O. A. Sotannde. (2014). A Comparison of Soda and Soda-ethanol Pulps of Thaumatococcus daniellii Benth (Miraculous Berry) Stalks. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology 4(15): 2181-2193.
. A. A. Ogunwusi. (2010). Variations in pulping properties of Pinus caribaea (Morelet) from Ijaye Forest Reserve. Nig. Jour. For. 40 (1 & 2): 51-59Pp.
. J. M. Dinwoodie. (2000).The influence of extractive on tree properties California reed wood Sesquuoia sempevirens. Journal Institute of Wood Science (8): 14-34.
. Y. M. Shuaibu, I. Abdu, N. Abubakar and M. Gambo. (2015). Effects of Different Methods of Breaking Seed Dormancy on the Germination of Flamboyant Seed (Delonix Regia) in Bauchi State, Nigeria. The International Journal of Science & Technoledge Vol 3: PP 194-195.
. M. Z. M. Salem, A. Abdel-Megeed and M. H. Ali. (2014). Stem Wood and Bark Extracts of Delonix regia (Boj. Ex Hook): Chemical Analysis and Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Properties. Bioresources 9 (2), 2382-2395.
. J. S. Udohitinah and A. O. Oluwadare. (2011). Pulping properties of Kraft pulp Nigerian-grown Kenaf (Hibiscus canabinus L). BioResources vol.6 (1):751-761.
. A. O. Oluwadare, and O. A. Sotannde. (2007)“The relationship between fibre characteristics and pulp sheet properties of Leucaena leucocepahla”, Middle-East journal of scientific research 2(2): 65-68.
. C. I. Ogbonnaya, H. Roy-Macauley, M. C. Nwaloz and D. J. M. Annerose. (1997). Physical and histochemical properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) grown under water deficit on a sandy soil. Industrial Crops and Production, 7: 9–18.
. C. Ververis, N. Georghiou, A. Christodoulakis, P. Santas and R. Santas. (2004). Fiber dimensions, lignin and cellulose content of various plant materials and their suitability for paper production. Ind. Crops Prod. (19): 245-254.
. A. O. Oluwadare and O. A. Sotannde. (2006). Variation of the fibre dimensions in the stalks of miraculous berry (Theumatococcus danielli Benth). Production Agricultural Technology (PAT), Vol. 2(1): 85-90.
. M. R. Roger, T. F. Mario and C. A. Edwin. (2007). Fibre morphology in fast growth Gmelina arborea plantations. Madera Bosques 13(2):3-13Pp.
. A .T. J. Ogunkunle. (2010). A Quantitative Modelling of Pulp and Paper Making Suitability of Nigerian Hardwood Species, Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 4(1): 14-21Pp.
. A. O. Oluwadare. (2007). Wood properties and selection for rotation length in Caribean pine (Pinus caribaea Morelet) grown in Afaka, Nigeria. American-European Journal of Agricultural Environment and Science, 2(4): 359-363.
. G. T. Anguruwa, (2018). Anatomical, Physico-Chemical and Bioenergy Properties of Ficus exasperate Vahl. in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis of the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
. O. O. Ajala and A. S. Noah. (2019). Evaluation of Fibre Characteristics of Aningeria robusta A. Chev. Wood for its Pulping Potentials Journal of Forestry Research and Management. Vol. 16(1). 90-97; 2019, ISSN 0189-8418 www.jfrm.org.ng.
. B. O. Ogunleye, J. A. Fuwape, A. Joseph, A. O. Oluyege, B. Ajayi and J. S. Fabiyi. (2017). Evaluation of Fiber Characteristics of Ricinodedron heudelotii (Baill, Pierre Ex Pax) for Pulp and Paper Making. International Journal of Science and Technology Volume 6 No. 1, January, 2017.
. A. S. Noah, M. B. Ogunleye, J. K. Abiola and F. N. Nnate. (2015). Fibre Characterisation of Gerdenia Ternifolia (Linn C.) Schumach for its Pulping Potential. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) Volume 14, No 2, pp 322-332.
. K. M. Ogunjobi, A. C. Adetogun, and A.O. Omole. (2014). Assessment of Variation in the Fibre Characteristics of the Wood of Vitex Doniana Sweet and tts suitability for Paper Production. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environmental VOLUME 6, No. 1 MARCH, 2014.
. S. S. Hindi, A. A. Bakhashwain and A. El-Feel. (2010). Physico-chemical characterization of some Saudi lignocellulosic natural resources and their suitability for fibre production. JKAU: Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture 21(2): 45-55.
. K. A. Kaila, and J. Aittamaa. (2006). Characterization of wood fibres using fibre property distribution. Chemical Engineering and Processing 45: 246-254.
. F. Jorge, T. Quilho and H. Pereir. (2000)Variability of fibre length in wood and bark in Eucalyptus globules. IAWA Journal, Vol.21 (1): 41-48.
. O. Y. Ogunsanwo. (2000). Characterisation of wood properties of plantation grown Obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon) in Omo Forest Reserve, Ogun State. Ph.D. thesis. Dept of Forest
Resources Management, University of Ibadan. 253P, 2000.
. D. N. Izekor. (2010). Physico-mechnaical characterisatics and anatomy of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) wood grown in Edo State, Nigeria. Ph.D. dissertation submitted to Dept of
Forestry and Wood Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. 225P.
. D. N. Izekor, and J. A. Fuwape. (2011). Variations in the Anatomical characteristics of Plantation Grown Tectona grandis wood in Edo State, Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research, 3(1): 83-90.
. T. F. Shupe, E. T. Choong, D. Stokk and D. M. Bibson, (1996). Variation in the cell dimensions and fibril angle for two fertilized even-aged loblolly pine plantations. Wood and Fibre Science, 28(2):268-275.
. R. M. Roque and T M. Fo. (2007). Wood density and fiber dimensions of Gmelina arborea in fast growth trees in Costa Rica: relation to the growth rate. Sistemasy Recursos Forestales 16 (3): 267-276.
. E. A. Emerhi. (2012). Variations in anatomical properties of Rhizophora racemosa (Leechm) and Rhizophora harrisonii (G. Mey) in a Nigerian mangrove forest ecosystem. International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion, 2(2): 89-96, 2012.
. O. O. AjalA. (1997). Evaluation of wood and fibre characteristics of Nigerian grown Pinus carribaea, Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1997.
. F. A. Awa. (1994). Anatomical properties of Afina [Strombosia glaucescens, var Lucida (J. Leonard)]. Ghana Journal of Forestry, Vol.1, 30-33.
. PPRI (Pulp and Paper Resources and Information) (2011). Paper on the web. http:www.paperonweb.blogspot.com/ visited 10 June,.
. G. C. Ajuziogu, U. Nzekwe and H. I. Chukwuma. (2010). Assessment of Suitability of Fibres of Four Nigerian Fruit Trees for Paper–Making, Bio-Research, Vol. 8, (2). 324-536Pp.
. J. Ohshima, S. Yokota, N. Yoshizawa and T. Ona. (2005). Examination of within-tree Variations and the heights representing whole-tree values of derived wood properties for quasi-non-destructive breeding of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus globules as quality pulpwood. Journal of Wood Science, vol. 51:102-111, 2005.
. J. T. Riki. (2018). Wood Properties of Some Hardwood Species in University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (M.Sc Dissertaion 2018 of the University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Unpublished).
. D. Dutt and C. H. Tyagi. (2011). Comparison of various Eucalyptus species and their Morphological, chemical, pulp and paper making characteristics. Ind. J. Chem. Technol. 18:144-151, 2011.
. T. E. Amidon. (1981). Effect of the wood Properties of Hardwood on Kraft paper peoperties. Tappi Vol. 64(3): 123 – 126Pp.
. A. O. Oluwadare. (1998). Evaluation of the Fibre and Chemical Properties of some selected Nigerian Wood and Non-wood species for pulp production. J. Trop. For. Res. Vol. 14 (1): 110 – 119.
. L. Bektas, A. Tutus and H. Eroglu. (1999). A study of suitability of calabrian pine (pinus brutiaten) for pulp and paper manufacture. Turk. J. Agric. 23: 776-784. Available: http//www.rogerblench.info/ethnoscience/plants/General/Nupe%20plant%namspdf, 1999.
. A. H. Hemmasi, A. Samariha, A. Tabei, M. Nemati and A. Khakifirooz. (2011). “Study of Morphological and Chemical composition of fibres from Iranium Sugarcane bagasse,” American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences 11 (4), 478-481.
. A.T. J. Ogunkunle and F. A. Oladele. (2008). Structural Dimensions and Paper Making Potentials of Wood in Some Nigerian Species of Ficus L. (Moraceae). Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 2(3): 103-111.
. I. O. Ezeibekwe, S. E. Okeke, C.I. N. Unamba, and J. C. Ohaeri. (2009). An Investigation into the Potentials of Dactyladenia bacteri; Dialum guineense; and Anthonota macrophylia for Paper Pulp Production. Report and Opinion, 1(4): 18-25.
. M. Akgul and A. Tozluoglu. (2009). “Some Chemical and Morphological Properties of Juvenile woods from beech fagus orientale L. and pine pinus nigra A. plantation” Trends in Applied Science Research 4(2), 116.DOI:10.3923/TASR. 2009.116.125.
. T. Ona, T. Sonoda, K. Ito, M. Shibata, Y. Tamai, Y. Kojima, J. Ohshima, S. Yokota and N.Yoshizawa. (2001). Investigation of relationships between cell and pulp properties in Eucalyptus by examination of within-tree variations. Wood Science and Technology, 35: 229-243.
Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.