Evaluation of Medication Adherence and its Predictors Among Psychiatric Outpatients at a Mental Healthcare Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study

  • Ayesha Shaheen Sarwar Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University , Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Ahmad Khan Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University , Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Tahir Mehmood School of Natural Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Jallat Khan Department of Chemistry, Khuwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Obaidullah Malik Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Munira Johar Saeed Akhtar College of Nursing, DAKSON Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan
Keywords: Predictors, non-adherence, psychiatry, psychotropic medication, mental disorders, outpatients


The study aimed to assess the level of medication adherence among psychiatric outpatients and to determine the main predictors associated with medication non-adherence. A cross sectional study was conducted among 298 psychiatric outpatients at Punjab Institute of Mental Health (PIMH), Lahore, Pakistan. A designed questionnaire was used as data collection tool and adherence was evaluated using MARS (Medication Adherence Rating Scale). Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Logistic regression was applied to determine the predictors of non-adherence. Medication adherence rate varied from low (39.3%) to high (60.7%) adherence. The impact of demographic factors such as age, gender, diagnosis, employment status and comorbidity on medication adherence were insignificant. Results of chi-square found that marital status, duration of illness from last visit, patient factors, medication factors, disease factors were significantly associated with adherence (p<0.05). Multivariate binary logistic regression indicated that qualification, marital status, number of tablets per day, duration of illness from last visit, patient factors, disease factors were the main predictors of medication non-adherence. 


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