Liver and Kidney Biochemical Profile of Typhoid Fever Patients at the Dschang District Hospital, West Cameroon: A Cross-Sectional Study
AbstractBackground: Typhoid fever remains prevalent in developing countries and most often affects liver and kidney. This study aimed to assess biochemical disturbances of the liver and kidney in patients with typhoid fever at the Dschang District Hospital, appreciate the implication of the disease duration as well as the type and the duration of treatment.Methods and materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dschang District Hospital, Cameroon. A total of 263 participants and a structure questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data. Stool culture was used for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Liver and kidney biomarkers were access using spectrophotometric technic. Results: By these technics, 112 healthy individuals (Control Group, CG), and 151 patients diagnosed with typhoid fever (Study Group, SG) were obtained. A significant lower level of albumin (p<0.05) was noted in SG compare to CG while other biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney function (ALT, AST, T-BILI, C-BILI, ALP, γ-GT, urea and creatinine) presented a significant higher levels at varying degrees, especially for ALT (p <0.001), AST, ALP, urea and creatinine (p <0.01), T-BILI, C-BILI and γ-GT (p <0.05). Relatively to the variation of biochemical parameters with respect to the duration of illness in the patients before their arrival to the hospital, except albumin which had a significant (p<0.05) decreased level from the first to the third week of the disease, ALT and AST had a significant (p<0.05) increased level from the first to the third week of the disease and, T-BILI, C-BILI, UC-BILI, ALP and γ-GT from the second to the third week of the disease. Relatively to the type of drug intake, the serum level of ALT, γ-GT, albumin and creatinine were significantly increased (p<0.05) with fluoroquinolones and indigenous (medicinal plants) intake while the serum level of AST, T-BILI, C-BILI, UC-BILI, ALP, urea and creatinine clearance were significantly (p<0.05) increased only with indigenous intake. Relatively to the duration of treatment, except creatinine clearance that significantly (p<0.05) decreased at the third week of treatment, the serum level of ALAT, ASAT, C-BILLI, ALP, γ-GT and albumin were significantly (p<0.05) increased from the first to the third week of the treatment, the serum level of T-BILI, UC-BILI and urea from the second to the third week of the treatment, and the serum level of creatinine at the third week of the treatment. There was a significant correlation between disease duration, drug intake duration and the serum level of ALT, AST, total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, ALP, γ-GT, urea, creatinine, albumin and creatinine clearance. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that typhoid fever negatively affects the proper functioning of the liver and kidneys, which varies depending on the duration of the illness, self-medication with conventional drugs such as fluoroquinolones and medicinal plants, and the duration of treatment.
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