Effect of Organic Solvents on the Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Sawdust
AbstractSawdust generated as waste by-product from timber industries finds limited industrial applications and is mostly discarded or incinerated, causing environmental problems. This research work was carried out with a view of utilizing sawdust to synthesize Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Cellulose was isolated from sawdust of commercially used hardwood (Mahogany- Khaya ivorensis) and softwood (Silk cotton- Eriodendron orientale) by alkali-acid and bleaching treatments. Using ethanol, butanol, isobutanol and isopropanol as solvent media, the isolated cellulose samples were converted to CMC through mercerization with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and etherification with sodium monochloroacetic acid (SMCA). The products obtained were characterized using Degree of Substitution (DS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Studies revealed that optimum DS of 0.54 could be reached when isopropanol is used as solvent medium. The presence of carboxyl and methyl functional group at wavenumber 1580-1590 and 1380-1415 cm-1 respectively on the FTIR spectra confirmed the conversion of cellulose to CMC. TGA showed that the thermal stability of CMC is lower than that of the parent cellulose. The results obtained demonstrate a simple method for the conversion of sawdust to a high quality water-soluble cellulose derivative which has applications in the food, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.
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