Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN): An Overview
AbstractThe plethora of research and development efforts on Wireless Sensor Networks is an indication that the technology has emerged an active research area in recent times. In this paper, a review of this intelligent technology is undertaken. Its working mechanisms, merits, challenges, transmission technologies, simulating tools and applications are considered. The paper concludes with a clear conviction that a sound knowledge of the basics of this technology is a sine qua non to research and development of the technology.
I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci. “Wireless sensor networks: a survey”. Computer Networks, Vol 38, pp. 393 – 422, 2002.
M. C. Ndinechi and F. K. Opara. “Design issues and applications of wireless sensor networks”, International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp 1 - 10, 2007.
J. A. Stankovic, “Wireless sensor networks”, June 19, 2006. http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~stankovic/psfiles/wsn.pdf [Accessed: Aug. 7, 2019].
S. La Malfa. “Wireless sensor networks”, Jan 2010. http://www.dees.unict.it/users/bando/files/wsn.pdf [Accessed: Aug. 7, 2019].
P. Papageorgiou. “Wireless sensor networks an overview”, 2003, http://www.cs.umd.edu/~pavlos/papers/unpublished/papageorgiou03sensors-talk.pdf [Accessed: Aug. 7, 2019].
H. Karl. “Ad hoc and Sensor Networks”, 2005 http://www.cacs.louisiana.edu/~akk6481/files/courses/wsn/ch1 [Accessed: Aug. 8, 2019].
V. Jindal, A. K. Verma, S. Bawa. “How the two adhoc networks can be different: MANET & WSNs”. International Journal of Computer Science & Technology, Vol. 2, Issue 4, Oct. - Dec. 2011.
P. Garg, K. Saroha, R. Lochab. “Review of wireless sensor networks – architecture and applications”, IJCSMS International Journal of Computer Science & Management Studies, Vol. 11, Issue 01, May 2011.
F. Oldewurtel, P. Mahonen. “Neural wireless sensor networks”, Proceedings in IEEE International Conference on Systems and Networks Communications (ICSNC '06), Tahiti, October 2006.
K. Sohraby, D. Minoli, T. Znati. "Wireless sensor networks: technology, protocols, and applications”, John Wiley and Sons, 2007.
G. Sharma, M. Verma, N. Mishra. “Analysis of transmission technologies in wireless sensor networks”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Vol. 3 Issue 1, January – 2014.
O. Kumari, S. Kumar. “Study of wireless communication technologies: bluetooth, Wi-Fi, cellular and WiMAX”, IJCSC , Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 61 – 70, July - Sept 2014.
C. Saad, B. Mostafa, E. Cheikh, H. Abderrahmane. “Comparative performance analysis of wireless communication protocols for intelligent sensors and their applications”. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Application, Vol. 5, Issue 4, 2014.
P. Kaur, V. Kumar. “A survey of energy optimization techniques in wireless sensor networks”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 5, May 2015.
Q. Wang, M. Hempstead and W. Yang, “A realistic power consumption model for wireless sensor network devices”, Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences Harvard University, 2005. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.136.1084&rep=rep1&type=pdf [Accessed: Aug. 3, 2019].
Y. Kubo, K. Yanagihara, M. Nozak. “Electric power conservation technology for wireless sensor networks”, Oki Technical Review Special Edition on the Environment: Aiming for Low Carbon Society, Vol.76, Issue 214, No.1, April 2009.
J. Saraswat, P. P. Bhattacharya. “Effect of duty cycle on energy consumption in wireless sensor networks”, International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC) Vol.5, No.1, January 2013.
G. Anastasi, M. Conti, M. Di Francesco, A. Passarella. “Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks: a survey”, Ad Hoc Network., Vol. 2009, Issue 7, pp 537 – 568, 2009.
M. A. Razzaque, C. Bleakley, S. Dobson. “Compression in wireless sensor networks: A survey and comparative evaluation”. ACM Trans. Sens. Netw. 2013, 10, 5:1–5:44.
M. A. Razzaque, S. Dobson. “Energy-efficient sensing in wireless sensor networks using compressed sensing”. 2014. www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors. [Accessed: Aug. 3, 2019].
M. L. Sichitiu, R. Dutta. “Beneﬁts of multiple battery levels for the lifetime of large wireless sensor networks” In: Boutaba R., Almeroth K., Puigjaner R., Shen S., Black J.P. (eds), Networking Technologies, Services, and Protocols; Performance of Computer and Communication Networks; Mobile and Wireless Communications Systems. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2005.
C. Alippi, G. Anastasi, M. Di Francesco, M. Roveri. “Energy management in wireless sensor networks with energy-hungry sensors. IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag., Vol 12, pp 16 – 23, 2009.
C. Buratti, A. Conti, D. Dardari, R. Verdone. “An overview on wireless sensor networks technology and evolution”, August 2009. www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors. [Accessed Aug. 9, 2019]
V. Raghunathan, C. Schurgers, S. Park, M. Srivastava, B. Shaw. “Energy-aware wireless microsensor networks”. IEEE Signal Process. May. 2002, 19, 40–50.
N. Shabbir, S. R. Hassan. “Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs)”. Wireless Sensor Networks - Insights and Innovations, 2017. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70208
I. Eisa, H. M. El-Bakry, S. M. Abd Elrazik, I. Q. Hasan, A. Q. Hasan, S. Zaid. “Challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks”. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science & Technology. Vol. 4, Issue 4, 2016.
F. Yu, and R. Jain. “A Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Simulation Tools”. 2011. http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse567-11/ftp/sensor.pdf [Accessed: Sept. 4, 2019].
Y. Xue, H. S. Lee, M. Yang, P. Kumarawadu, H. H. Ghenniwa, W. Shen. “Performance evaluation of NS-2 simulator for wireless sensor networks”. Electrical and Computer Engineering Conference, Canada. April 22 – 26 2007, pp. 1372 – 1375, http://gdauto.gdut.edu.cn/lab1/lwfy_files/Performance%20Evaluation%20of%20NS2%20Simulator%20for%20Wireless%20Sensor%20Networks.pdf [Accessed: Sept. 4, 2019].
S. Yi, H. Min, Y. Cho, J. Hong. “SensorMaker: a wireless sensor network simulator for scalable and fine-grained instrumentation”, Computational Science and its Application-ICCSA, Vol. 5072 pp. 800 -810,2008. http://www.springerlink.com/content/135t337v633v6240/ [Accessed: Sept. 4, 2019].
C. Stevens, C. Lyons, R. Hendrych, R. S. Carbajo, M. Huggard, C. Mc Goldrick. “Simulating mobility in WSNs: Bridging the gap between NS-2 and TOSSIM 2.x”. Proceedings of 13th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications, Singapore, 2009. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1671365&dl=ACM&coll=DL [Accessed: Sept. 4, 2019].
L. Shu, C. Wu, Y. Zhang, J. Chen, L. Wang, M. Hauswirth. “NetTopo: beyond simulator and visualizer for wireless sensor networks”, Future Generation Communication and Networking - FGCN, Vol. 1, pp. 17 - 20, 2008. http://www.cs.virginia.edu/sigbed/archives/2008-10 [Accessed: Sept. 4, 2019].
M. Imran, A. M. Said and H. Hasbullah. “A survey of simulators, emulators and testbeds for wireless sensor networks”, Information Technology (ITSim) International Symposium, pp. 897 – 902. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. June 2010. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=5561571 [Accessed: Sept. 4, 2019].
G. V. Merrett, N. M. White, N. R. Harris, B. M. Al-Hashimi. “Energy-aware simulation for wireless sensor networks”, IEEE Xplore, 2009. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/224565048 [Accessed: Aug, 29, 2019].
E. Egea-Lopez, J. Vales-Alonso, A. S. Martinez-Sala, P. Pavon-Marino and J. Garcia-Haro. “Simulation tools for wireless sensor networks”, Proceedings of Summer Simulation Multi-Conference, SPECTS, pp. 2 – 9, 2005. http://ait.upct.es/~eegea/pub/spects05.pdf [Accessed: Aug, 29, 2019].
N. Onuekwusi, I. Achumba, N. Chukwuchekwa, G. Chukwudebe and G. Ononiwu. “Leveraging wireless sensor networks for improved infrastructure management in the energy sector”, Proceedings of the Nigerian Society of Engineers Annual National Conference, Akure, Nigeria, November 16 – 20, 2015.
U.S. Department of Transportation. “Intelligent transportation systems applications overview” Research and Innovative Technology Administration, (RITA), 2009. www.itsoverview.its.dot.gov/, [Accessed July 1, 2019].
Intelligent Transportation Systems Society (ITS Canada). “About intelligent transportation systems (ITS)”. www.itscanada.ca/english/aboutits.htm, 2009 [Accessed July, 1, 2019].
T. Wark, P. Corke, P. Sikka, L. Klingbeil, Y. Guo, C. Crossman, P. Valencia, D. Swain, G. Hurley. “Transforming agriculture through pervasive wireless networks”. Pervasive Computing, pp 50-57, 2007.
R. Evans, J. Bergman. “Relationships between cropping sequences and irrigation frequency under self-propelled irrigation systems in the northern great plains”. USDA Annual Report, 2003.
P. Sharma. “Socio-economic implications of wireless sensor networks with special reference to its application in agriculture”, IEEE African Journal of Computing & ICT, Vol 6. No. 2, June 2013.
S. Qingshan, L. Ying, D. Gareth, and D. Brown. “Wireless intelligent sensor networks for refrigerated vehicle”. In IEEE 6th Symposium on Emerging Technologies Mobile and Wireless Communication, Shanghai, China 2004.
S. Prasanna, S. Rao. “An overview of wireless sensor networks applications and security”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE),Vol. 2, Issue-2, May 2012.
D. Okereafor, U. Diala, N. Onuekwusi, L. Uzoechi and G. Chukwudebe. “Improving security and emergency response through the use of unmanned vehicles” paper presented at the IEEE Nigeria Section 2nd International Conference on Emerging & Sustainable Technologies for Power & ICT in a Developing Society (NIGERCON). Owerri, Nigeria, November 14 – 16, 2013.
O. Gulich. “Technological and business challenges of smart grids” M.sc Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland, 2010.
J. Momoh. “Smart grid design for electric power networks”. Presented at the International Conference on Power System Operations and Planning (ICPSOP), Abuja, Nigeria, January 2010.
H. Siderius and A. Dijkstra. “Smart metering for households: costs and benefits for the Netherlands”. 2006. http://mail.mtprog.com/CD_Layout/Day_2_22.06.06/09001045/ID57_Siderius_final.pdf, [Accessed: July 1, 2019]
G. Werner-Allen, K. Lorincz, M. Welsh, O. Marcillo, J. Johnson, M. Ruiz, J. Lees. “Deploying a wireless sensor network on an active volcano”, IEEE Internet Computing, Mar/Apr 2006.
A. Bagula. “Applications of wireless sensor networks” WSN Applications, February 2012
V. Weber. “Smart sensor networks: technologies and applications for green growth”, presented at the OECD Conference on ICTs, the Environment and Climate Change, Helsingør, Denmark, May 2009.
R. Verdone, D. Dardari, G. Mazzini, A. Conti. Wireless sensor and actuator networks, Academic Press/Elsevier, London 2008.
Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.