Evaluating Performance of Different Filter Media Stratification for Tertiary Treatment of Wastewater
AbstractThe use of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation is one of the methods used to reduce the scarcity of fresh water. In this study, the different filtration media of sand, anthracite, granular activated carbon (GAC) and rice straw with a sub-base of gradual gravel supported each were used. In addition, the filtration efficiency was evaluated according to the treated water quality tests. As such, different filtration rates were parameterized to obtain the best operating conditions after ensuring that treated wastewater meets with the standard specifications for irrigation. The results indicated that the optimal filtration rate is 175 m / day, which achieves the appropriate quality of treated wastewater for the water characteristics examined according to the standard specifications of irrigation water. In addition, rice straw supported by a sand base is considered a practicable filtration media. However, the results of analyses of total solids in water did not match to Egyptian standards when using rice straw with sand as a filtration medium. Therefore, it is recommended to follow the filtration process using rice straw as a filtration medium with another stage of sand filtration to ensure the total solids comply with the standards.
El-Gohary, F. A., Nasr, F. A., & El-Hawaary, S. (1998). Performance assessment of a wastewater treatment plant producing effluent for irrigation in Egypt. Environmentalist, 18(2), 87-93.
Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., George Tchobanoglous; Franklin L. Burton; H. and David Stensel. (2003). Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse.4th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Hamoda, M. F., Al-Ghusain, I., & Al-Mutairi, N. Z. (2004). Sand filtration of wastewater for tertiary treatment and water reuse. Desalination, 164(3), 203-211.
Perillo, G. (2013). Water re-use for sustainable irrigation. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 175, 303-311.
AbuZeid, K; and Elrawady, M. (2014). Strategic Vision for Treated Wastewater Reuse in Egypt. Water Resources Management Program, CEDARE.
[ Lonigro, A; Montemurro, N; Rubino, P; Vergine, P; and Pollice, A. (2015). Reuse of treated municipal wastewater for irrigation in Apulia Region: The " In.Te.R.R.A" Project. Environmental Engineering and Managament Journal, 14(7): 1665-1674.
Mahmoued, E.K. (2015). Low-cost technology for wastewater treatment for irrigation reuse. International Journal of Water Resources and Arid Environments, 4(2): 105-111.
Yadav, R., Joshi, H., & Tripathi, S. K. (2015). Achieving Sustainable Agriculture with Treated Municipal Wastewater. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering, 9(6), 644-647.
Boehler, M., Zwickenpflug, B., Hollender, J., Ternes, T., Joss, A., & Siegrist, H. (2012). Removal of micropollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plants by powder-activated carbon. Water Science and Technology, 66(10), 2115-2121.
Wang, D., Guo, F., Wu, Y., Li, Z., & Wu, G. (2018). Technical, economic and environmental assessment of coagulation/filtration tertiary treatment processes in full-scale wastewater treatment plants. Journal of cleaner production, 170, 1185-1194.
Hegazy, B., El-Khateeb, M. A., El-adly Amira, A., & Kamel, M. M. (2007). Low-cost wastewater treatment technology. Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(6), 815-819.
Hegazy, B. E. (2008). A simple technology for industrial wastewater treatment. J Appl Sci Res, 4, 397-402.
Yamina, G., Abdeltif, A., Youcef, T., Mahfoud, H. M., & Fatiha, G. (2013). A comparative study of the addition effect of activated carbon obtained from date stones on the biological filtration efficiency using sand dune bed. Energy procedia, 36, 1175-1183.
Gherairi, F., Hamdi-Aissa, B., Touil, Y., Hadj-Mahammed, M., Messrouk, H., & Amrane, A. (2015). Comparative Study between two Granular Materials and their Influence on the Effectiveness of biological Filtration. Energy Procedia, 74, 799-806.
Jiang, C., Jia, L., Zhang, B., He, Y., & Kirumba, G. (2014). Comparison of quartz sand, anthracite, shale and biological ceramsite for adsorptive removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 26(2), 466-477.
Xu, H., Huagn, G., Li, X., Gao, L., & Wang, Y. (2016). Removal of quinoline from aqueous solutions by lignite, coking coal and anthracite. Adsorption isotherms and thermodynamics. Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing, 52.(1): 214−227.
Baraee, I., Mehdi Borghei, S., Takdastan, A., Hasani, A. H., & Javid, A. H. (2016). Performance of biofilters in GAC-sand and anthracite-sand dual-media filters in a water treatment plant in Abadan, Iran. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(42), 19655-19664.
Ayoub, M., Afify, H., & Abdelfattah, A. (2017). Chemically enhanced primary treatment of sewage using the recovered alum from water treatment sludge in a model of hydraulic clari-flocculator. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 19, 133-138.
MAJOR, P. (2012). Availability and physical properties of residues from major agricultural crops for energy conversion through thermochemical processes. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 7(3), 312-321.
APHA (2012). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 22nd edition. APHA, AWWA, and WEF, Washington.
Crittenden, J.C; Trussel, R.R; Hand, D.W. ; Howe, K.J; and Tchobanoglous, G. (2005). Water Treatment Principles and Design. 2nd Edition , John Wiley and Sons Inc.
AWWA, American Water Works Association. (1990). Water Quality and Treatment. 4th Edition, New York. Mc Graw-Hill Book Company.
Fernández-Nava, Y., Marañón, E., Soons, J., & Castrillón, L. (2010). Denitrification of high nitrate concentration wastewater using alternative carbon sources. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 173(1-3), 682-688.
Yamashita, T., & Yamamoto-Ikemoto, R. (2014). Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater treatment plant effluent via bacterial sulfate reduction in an anoxic bioreactor packed with wood and iron. International journal of environmental research and public health, 11(9), 9835-9853.
Egyptian Code guidelines. (2005). Egyptian Code of the reuse of the wastewater. Cairo, Egypt.
FAO guidelines. (1992). Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture -FAO irrigation and drainage. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.
WHO guidelines. (2006). A compendium of standards for wastewater reuse in the Eastern Mediter
ranean Region. World Health Organization, WHO-EM/CEH/142/E.
Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.