Status quo of Biodiesel Production in Africa: A Review on Technological Options, Policies and Aboriginal Feedstock Potential

  • Narcisse Serge Nouadjep
  • Evariste B. Gueguim Kana
  • Emmanuel Nso
  • Cesar Kapseu
Keywords: Africa, energy, biodiesel, transesterification, feedstocks, policies

Abstract

Growing industrialization, modernization along with better living standards in Africa, are expected to rise in the coming years with energy demand, increasing eventually. This expansion is occurring at a time when oil prices have reached new heights. Unstable oil prices do indeed, increase the vulnerability of importers. However, it also presents an opportunity to explore promising technical options to help reduce the over-reliance on imported petroleum fuels. Biofuels including biodiesel, offer new opportunities for African countries. They can contribute to economic growth, and rural incomes for some countries and provide low cost fuel for others.  In this paper: the importance, properties, vegetable feed-stocks and enhancement in technology for production of biodiesel are described, including; characterization, engine performance, energy actual state, current situation of biodiesel and bioenergy policies in Africa. From the exploration, it is inferred that; there are auspicious oil resources in the plan for biodiesel industrialization in Africa.

References

[1] C. J. Bart Jan, N. Palmeri, S. Cavallaro. “Biodiesel Science and Technology: From Soil to Oil”.CRC Press ISBN 978-1-4398-2730-7, 2010 p-xv.
[2] N. Soo-Young. “Inedible vegetable oils and their derivatives for alternative diesel fuels in CI engines: A review”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Vol 15,pp.131–149, 2011.
[3] B. Amigun, J. K. Musango, W. Stafford. “Biofuels and sustainability in Africa”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev., Vol. 15, pp.1360–72, 2011.
[4] P. Wood. “Out of Africa: could Jatropha vegetable oil be Europe's biodiesel feedstock?”Refocus, 2005,6,p.40.
[5] B. Amigun, R. Sigamoney, H. Von Blottnitz. “Commercialisation of biofuel industry in Africa: a review”, Renew Sustain Energy Rev. Vo'l.12, pp.690–711, 2008.
[6] R. Brittaine, N. Lutaladio. “Jatropha: a smallholder bioenergy crop: the potential for pro-poor development”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2010.
[7] R.B. Mangoyana. “Bioenergy for sustainable development: an African context”. Phys Chem Earth, Vol. 34, pp59–64, 2009.
[8] P. Girard, A. Fallot. “Review of existing and emerging technologies for the production of biofuels in developing countries”. Energy Sustain Dev, Vol. 10, pp.92–108, 2006.
[9] Y. Christi. “Biodiesel from Microalgae”. Biotechnol. Adv. Vol.25, pp.294–306, 2007.
[10] M. Schut, M. Slingerland, A. Locke. “Biofuel developments in Mozambique. Update and analysis of policy, potential and reality”. Energy Policy, Vol. 38, pp.5151–65, 2010.
[11] M. H. Duku, S. Gu, E.B. Hagan. “A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuels potential in Ghana”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. Vol. 15,pp.404–15, 2011.
[12] J. Peters, S. Thielmann. “Promoting biofuels: implications for developing countries”. Energy Policy. Vol. 36, pp. 1538–44, 2008.
[13] A. Demirbas. “Biodiesel from sunflower oil in supercritical methanol with calcium oxide”. Energy Convers Manag. Vol. 48, pp.937–41, 2007.
[14] A. Demirbas. “Biodiesel from vegetable oils with MgO catalytic transesterification in supercritical methanol”. Energy Sources, Vol. 30, pp.1645–51, 2008.
[15] V. B. Borugadda, V.V. Goud. “Biodiesel production from renewable feedstocks: status and opportunities”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev, Vol.16, pp.4763–84, 2012.
[16] World Bank, DC. Growth Co. “The growth report: strategies for sustained growth and inclusive development”. World Bank-Free PDF; 2008.
[17] A. Muller, J. Schmidhuber, J. Hoogeveen, P. Steduto. “Some insights in the effect of growing bio-energy demand on global food security and natural resources”. Water Policy. Vol.10,pp.83, 2008.
[18] T. Wolde-Georgis, M. Glantz. “Biofuels in Africa: a pathway to development?” International Research Center for Energy and economic development, occasional papers:43, 2009.
[19] G. Prasad, E. Visagie. “Renewable energy technologies for poverty alleviation Initial assessment report: South Africa”. Energy Res Centre (Cape Town, University of Cape Town), 2005.
[20] The Internatonal Energy Agency’s (IEA). “Africa Energy Outlook – a Special Report” in the 2014 World Energy Outlook series. OECD/IEA. 2014.
[21] United Nations, department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World population prospects. The 2015 Revision, Key findings and Advance tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP. 2015, pp.241.
[22] World Bank Wd. World Development Report, 2005.
[23] B. Petroleum. “Quantifying Energy”. BP statistical review of World Energy: London, June 2006.
[24] IEA. Key World Energy Statistics IEA Books, France 2006.
[25] R. Quitzow, S. Roehrkasten, D. Jacobs, B. Bayer, J. El Mostafa, Y. Waweru, P. Matschoss. “The Future of Africa’s Energy Supply: Potentials and Development Options for Renewable Energy”. Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, 2016.
[26] World energy council, world energy resources. 2016; summary.
[27] N. Đurišić-Mladenovića, F. Kissa, Biljana Škrbića, M. Tomićb, R. Mićićc, Z. Predojević. “Current state of the biodiesel production and the indigenous feedstock potential in Serbia”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Vol, 81, pp.280-291, 2018.
[28] S. A. Raja, Z. R. Kennedy, B. Pillai, C.L.R. Lee. “Conventional pyrolysis of jatropha oil cake in a fixed bed reactor”. Int. J Chem Eng Res., Vol. 2, pp.85–96, 2010.
[29] S. l. Yan, H. f. Lu, L. h. Jiang, B. Liang. “Solid base catalysts for transesterification of oil with methanol to produce biodiesel”. J Chem Ind Eng-China, Vol. 58, p. 2506, 2007.
[30] K. Ramachandran, T. Suganya, N. Nagendra Gandhi, S. Renganathan. “Recent developments for biodiesel production by ultrasonic assist transesterification using different heterogeneous catalyst: a review”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. Vol. 22, pp. 410–8, 2013.
[31] A. B. Fadhil, L. H. Ali. “Alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of Silurus triostegus heckel fish oil: optimization of transesterification parameters”. Renew Energy, Vol. 60, pp. 481–8, 2013.
[32] A. Demirbas. “Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and noncatalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods”. Prog Energy Combust Sci. Vol. 31, pp.466–87, 2005.
[33] P.D. Patil, S. Deng. “Optimization of biodiesel production from edible and nonedible vegetable oils”. Fuel, Vol. 88, pp.1302–6, 2009.
[34] K. Georgogianni, A. Katsoulidis, P. Pomonis, G. Manos, M. Kontominas. “Transesterification of rapeseed oil for the production of biodiesel using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis”, Fuel Process Technol, Vol. 90, pp. 1016–22, 2009.
[35] B.A.K. Prusty, R. Chandra, P. Azeez. “Biodiesel: freedom from dependence on fossil fuels?” Nat Proc. 2008, pp. 1–27.
[36] A. S. Ramadhas, S. Jayaraj, C. Muraleedharan. “Biodiesel production from high FFA rubber seed oil”. Fuel, Vol. 84, pp. 335–40, 2005.
[37] J. Marchetti, V. Miguel, A. Errazu. “Possible methods for biodiesel production”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev., Vol. 11, pp. 1300–11, 2007.
[38] A.O. Costa, L.B.Oliveira, M.P.E. Lins, A.C.M. Silva, M.S.M. Araujo, Jr A.O. Pereira, et al. “Sustainability analysis of biodiesel production: a review on different resources in Brazil”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev., Vol. 27, pp. 407–12, 2013.
[39] S. Singh, D. Singh, “Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their esters as the substitute of diesel: a review’. Renew Sustain Energy Rev., Vol. 14, pp. 200–16, 2010.
[40] I. Atadashi, M. Aroua, A.A. Aziz. “High quality biodiesel and its diesel engine application: a review”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev., Vol. 14, pp. 1999–2008, 2010.
[41] N.S. Nouadjep, C. Kapseu, E. Nso. “Characterization of white seed Sesamum indicum L. oil for biodiesel production”. Int. J. Engg. Res. & Sci. & Tech., Vol. 2(4), pp. 54-63, 2013.
[42] A.E. Atabani, A.S. Silitonga, I.A. Badruddin, T.M.I. Mahlia, H.H. Masjuki, S. Mekhilef. “A comprehensive review on biodiesel as an alternative energy resource and its characteristics”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev., Vol. 16(4), pp. 2070–93, 2012.
[43] L. Lin, Z. Cunshan, S. Vittayapadung, S. Xiangqian, D. Mingdong. “Opportunities and challenges for biodiesel fuel”. Appl Energy, Vol. 88(4), pp.1020–31, 2011.
[44] L. Tarabet, K. Loubar , M.S. Lounici, S. Hanchi, M. Tazerout. “Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine”. J. Biomed Biotechnol, Vol. 8. 2012.
[45] A. Srivastava, R. Prasad. “Triglycerides-based diesel fuels”. Renew Sust Energ Rev.,Vol. 4, pp.111–133, 2000.
[46] M. Balat, H. Balat. “A critical review of biodiesel as a vehicular fuel”. Energ Convers Manag. Vol. 49, pp.2727– 2741, 2008.
[47] M. Balat, H. Balat. “Progress in biodiesel processing”. Appl Energy. Vol. 87(6), pp.1815–1835, 2010.
[48] F. Ma, M.A. Hanna. “Biodiesel production: a review”. Bioresour Technol. Vol. 70, pp.1–15, 1999.
[49] Van Zyl W.H.& Prior B. A. South Africa Biofuels, IEA Taskgroup, Chair of Energy Research: Biofuels; 2009; 39 Progress Report: 2-5.
[50] L. Kolver, Does SA’s. “sunflower-to-diesel technology have any place in its fuel-security future?” CREAMER MEDIA’s Engineering news, 2008, pp.10-17, 1.
[51] G. Knothe, R.O.Dunn, M.O. Bagby. “Biodiesel: the use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels”, ACS symposium series, Washington, DC. American Chemical Society. Vol. 666, pp.172–208, 1997.
[52] S. Jain, M.P. Sharma. “Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India: a review”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. Vol. 14(2), pp.763–71, 2010.
[53] C. Goering. “Final report for project on effect of nonpetroleum fuels on durability of direct-injection diesel engines under contract 59-2171-1-6-057-0. USDA ARS, 1984.
[54] International Energy Agency (IEA). World energy outlook 2007. OECD/IEA, Paris 2007.
[55] W. Parawira. “Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: a review”. Sci Res Essays. Vol. 5(14), pp.1796–1808, 2010.
[56] Y.C. Sharma, B. Singh, S.N. Upadhyay. “Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: a review”. Fuel. Vol. 87(12), pp.2355–2373, 2008.
[57] A.W. Schwab, G.J. Dykstra, E. Selke, et al. “Diesel fuel from thermal decomposition of soybean oil”. JAOCS. Vol. 65, pp.1781–1786, 1988.
[58] S. Soltani, U. Rashid, R. Yunus, et al. “Synthesis of Biodiesel through Catalytic Transesterification of Various Feedstocks using Fast Solvothermal Technology: A Critical Review”. Catal Rev Sci Eng. Vol. 00, pp.1–29, 2015.
[59] H. Fukuda, A. Konda, N. Noda. “Biodiesel fuel production by transestirification of oils”. J. Biosci Bioeng. Vol. 92, pp. 405–416, 2001.
[60] A. Karmakar, S. Karmakar, S. Mukherjee. “Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production”. Bioresour Technol. Vol. 101(19), pp. 7201–10, 2010.
[61] Y. C. Sharma, B. Singh. “Development of biodiesel: current scenario”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. Vol. 13(6), pp.1646–51, 2009.
[62] S. V. Ranganathan, S. L. Narasimhan, K. Muthukumar. “An overview of enzymatic production of biodiesel”. Bioresour Technol. Vol. 99(10), pp. 3975–81, 2008.
[63] M. Canakci, J. Van Gerpen. “Biodiesel production via acid catalysis”. Trans ASAE. Vol. 42(5), pp.1203–10, 1999.
[64] L. C. Meher, M. G. Kulkarni, A. K. Dalai, S. N. Naik. “Transesterification of karanja (Pongamia pinnata) oil by solid basic catalysts”. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. Vol. 108(5), pp. 389–97, 2006.
[65] J.V. Gerpen. “Biodiesel processing and production”. Fuel Process Technol. Vol. 86(10), pp.1097–107, 2005.
[66] E. M. Shahid, Y. Jamal. “A review of biodiesel as vehicular fuel”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev., Vol. 12(9), pp. 2484–94, 2008.
[67] R. Guzatto, T. L. Martini, D. Samios. “The use of a modified TDSP for biodiesel production from soybean, linseed and waste cooking oil”. Fuel Process Technol. Vol. 92, pp. 2083–2088, 2011.
[68] C.C.S. Macedo, F.R. Abreu, A.P. Tavares, et al. “New heterogeneous metal-oxides based catalyst for vegetable oil transesterification”. J. Braz Chem Soc. Vol. 17, pp.1291–1296, 2006.
[69] D. Royon, M. Daz, G. Ellenrieder, et al. “Enzymatic production of biodiesel from cotton seed oil using t-butanolas a solvent”. Bioresour Technol. Vol. 98, pp.648–653, 2007.
[70] Y. Watanabe, Y. Shimada, A. Sugihara, et al. “Conversion of degummed soybean oil to biodiesel fuel with immobilized Candida antarctica lipase”. J Mol Catal B Enzym. Vol. 17, pp.151–155, 2002.
[71] Y.Y. Linko, M. Lamsa, X.Wu, et al. “Biodegradable products by lipase biocatalysis”. J Biotechnol. Vol.66, pp. 41–50, 1998.
[72]. A. Ghanem. “The utility of cyclodextrins in lipase-catalyzed transesterification in organic solvents: enhanced reaction rate and enantioselectivity”. Organic & biomolecular chemistry. Vol. 1, pp.1282–91, 2003.
[73] S. Shah, M.N. Gupta. “Lipase catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from Jatropha oil in a solvent free system”. Process Biochem. Vol. 42, pp.409–414, 2007.
[74] O.L. Bernardes, J.V. Bevilaqua, M.C.M.R. Leal, et al. “Biodiesel fuel production by the transesterification reaction of soybean oil using immobilized lipase”. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. Vol. 137–140, pp.105–114, 2007.
[75]. A. De, A. P. Vieira, M.A.P. Da Silva, et al. “Biodiesel production via esterification reactions catalyzed by lipase”. Lat Am Appl Res. Vol. 36, pp.283–288, 2006.
[76] O.M. Lai, H. M. Ghazali, C.L. Chong. “Use of enzymatic transesterified palm stearin sunflower oil blends in the preparation of table margarine formulation’. Food Chem. Vol. 64, pp.83–88, 1999.
[77] P. Skagerlind, M. Jansson, B. Bergenstahl, et al. “Binding of Rhizomucor miehei lipase to emulsion interfaces and its interference with surfactants”. Colloids Surf B Bioint. Vol. 4, pp.129–135, 1995.
[78] N. R. Sonare, V. K. Rathod. “Transesterification of used sunflower oil using immobilized enzyme”. J. Molecu. Catal. B Enzymatic. Vol. 66, pp.142–147, 2010.
[79] Y. Zhang, M. A. Dube, D. D. McLean, et al. “Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: Process design and technological assessment”. Bioresour Technol. Vol. 89, pp. 1–16, 2003.
[80] J. Van Gerpen, B. Shanks, R. Pruszko, et al. “Biodiesel analytical methods”. August 2002–January 2004. Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); 2004[NREL/SR-510-36240].
[81] F. Goembira, S. Saka. “Optimization of biodiesel production by supercritical methyl acetate”. Bioresour. Technol. Vol. 131, pp.47–52, 2013.
[82] Z. Ilham, S. Saka. “Two-step supercritical dimethyl carbonate method for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil”. Bioresour. Technol. Vol. 101, pp.2735–2740, 2010.
[83] R. Sawangkeaw, S. Teeravitud, K. Bunyakiat, S. Ngamprasertsith. “Biofuel production from palm oil with supercritical alcohols: Effects of the alcohol to oil molar ratios on the biofuel chemical composition and properties”. Bioresour. Technol. Vol. 102, pp. 10704–10710, 2011.
[84] A. Pal, A. Verma, S.S. Kachhwaha, S. Maji. “Biodiesel production through hydrodynamic cavitation and performance testing”. Renew. Energ. Vol. 35, pp.619-624, 2010.
[85] P. Khemthong, C. Luadthong, Nualpaeng, P. Changsuwan, P. Tongprem, N. Viriya-empikul, K. I. Faungnawakij. “Industrial eggshell wastes as the heterogeneous catalysts for microwave-assisted biodiesel production”. Catal. Today. Vol 190, pp. 112–116, 2012.
[86] R. Kumar, G. R. Kumar, N. Chandrashekar. “Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production”. Bioresource Technol. Vol 102, pp. 6617-6620, 2012.
[87] B. Salamatinia, A. Z. Abdullah, S. Bhatia. “Quality evaluation of biodiesel produced through ultrasound-assisted heterogeneous catalytic system”. Fuel Process. Technol. Vol. 97, pp. 1–8, 2012.
[88] X. Yin, H. Ma, Q. You, Z. Wang, J. Chang. “Comparison of four different enhancing methods for preparing biodiesel through transesterification of sunflower oil”. Appl. Energ. Vol. 91, pp. 320–325, 2012.
[89] V. B. Veljkovi, J. M. Avramovi, O. S. Stamenkovi. “Biodiesel production by ultrasound-assisted transesterification: State of the art and the perspectives”. Renewable and Sustain. Energ. Rev. Vol. 16, pp.1193– 1209, 2012.
[90] G. Kumar, D. Kumar, Poonam, R. Johari, C.P. Singh. “Enzymatic transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil assisted by ultrasonication. Ultrason”. Sonochem. Vol. 18, pp. 923–927, 2011.
[91] D. Ghayal, A. B. Pandit, V. K. Rathod. “Optimization of biodiesel production in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor using used frying oil”. Ultrason. Sonochem. Vol. 20, pp. 322–328, 2013.
[92] N. E. Leadbeater, L. M. Stencel. “Fast, Easy Preparation of Biodiesel Using Microwave Heating”. Energy Fuels. Vol. 20(5), pp. 2281-2283, 2006.
[93] N. Azcan, A. Danisman. “Alkali catalyzed transesterification of cottonseed oil by microwave irradiation”. Fuel. Vol. 86, pp. 2639-2644, 2007.
[94] F. Ferella, G.M. Di Celso, I. De Michelis, V. Stanisci, F. Veglio. “Optimization of the transesterification reaction in biodiesel production”. Fuel, Vol. 89(1), pp.36–42, 2010.
[95] Y. Rao, B. Xiang, X. Zhou, Z. Wang, S. Xie, J. Xu. “Quantitative and qualitative determination of acid value of peanut oil using near-infrared spectrometry”. J Food Eng.Vol. 93, pp. 249–52, 2009.
[96] C. Kaya, C. Hamamci, A. Baysal, O. Akba, S. Erdogan, A. Saydut. “Methyl ester of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production”. Renew Energy. Vol.34, pp.1257–60, 2009.
[97] A. Kanitkar, S. Balasubramanian, M. Lima, D. Boldor. “A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves”. Bioresour Technol . Vol. 102(17), pp. 7896–902, 2011.
[98] P.K. Sahoo, L.M. Das. “Process optimization for biodiesel production from Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga oils. Fuel, Vol.88, pp. 1588–94, 2009.
[99] J. San Jose Alonso, J.A. Lopez Sastre, C. Romero-Avila, E. Lopez. “A note on the combustion of blends of diesel and soya, sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils in a light boiler”. Biomass Bioenergy, Vol.32, pp.880–6, 2008.
[100] G. Kafuku, M.K. Lam, J. Kansedo, K.T. Lee, Mbarawa Makame. “Heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel production from Moringa oleifera oil. Fuel Process Technol., Vol. 91(11), pp.1525–9, 2010.
[101] W.W. Qian, L. Yang, X.P. Lu. “Preparation of biodiesel catalyzed by KF/CaO with ultrasonic”. In: International conference on biomass energy technologies. Zhuang X, ed., Guangzhou, China; 2008.
[102] A. Kawashima, K. Matsubara, K. Honda. “Acceleration of catalytic activity of calcium oxide for biodiesel production”. Bioresour Technol., Vol. 100, pp. 696–700, 2009.
[103] S. Jain, M.P. Sharma. “Kinetics of acid base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil”. Bioresour Technol., Vol.101(20), pp.7701–6, 2010.
[104] M. Di Serio, M. Cozzolino, R. Tesser, P. Patrono, F. Pinzari, B. Bonelli, et al. “Vanadyl phosphate catalysts in biodiesel production”. Appl Catal A: Gen., Vol. 320, pp.1–7, 2007.
[105] X. Li, X.Y. He, Z.L. Li, Y.D. Wang, C.Y. Wang, H. Shi, F. Wang. “Enzymatic production of biodiesel from Pistacia chinensis bge seed oil using immobilized lipase”. Fuel. Vol. 92(1), pp.89-93, 2012.
[106] Q. You, X. Yin, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang. “Biodiesel production from jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase on modified attapulgite”. Bioresour Technol., Vol.148, pp.202–7, 2013.
[107] W. Lou, M. Zong, Z. Duan. “Efficient production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing waste oils using various carbohydrate-derived solid acid catalysts”. Bioresour Technol., Vol. 99, pp. 8752–8, 2008.
[108] E. Furimsky. “Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation”. Appl Catal A. Vol.199(2), pp.147–90, 2000.
[109] Y. S. Prasad, N.N. Bakhshi. “Effect of pretreatment of HZSM-5 catalyst on its performance in canola oil upgrading”. Appl Catal. Vol. 18(1), pp.71–85, 1985.
[110] S. Palanisamy, B. S. Gevert. “Thermal treatment of rapeseed oil in bioenergy technology”. Proceedings of World renewable energy congress, 2011.
[111] A. Sonthalia, N. Kumar. “Hydroprocessed vegetable oil as a fuel for transportation sector: A review”. Journal of the Energy Institute. Vol. xxx, pp.1-17, 2017.
[112] M. Krar, T. Kasza, S. Kovacs, D. Kallo, J. Hancsok. “Biogas oils with improved low temperature properties”. Fuel Process Technol., Vol. 92(5), pp. 886–92, 2011.
[113] J. Scherzer, A.J. Gruia. Hydrocracking science and technology (Chemical industries). CRC Press. 1996.
[114] Y. Wang, W. Xingguo, L. Yuanfa, O. Shiyi, T. Yanlai, T. Shuze. “Refining of biodiesel by ceramic membrane separation”. Fuel Process Technol. Vol. 90, pp.422–7, 2009.
[115] H. Y. He, X. Guo, S. L. Zhu. “Comparison of membrane extraction with traditional extraction methods for biodiesel production”. J Am Oil Chem Soc. Vol. 83 (5), pp. 457–60, 2006.
[116] J. Saleh, A. Y. Tremblay, M. A. Dube. “Glycerol removal from biodiesel using membrane separation technology”. Fuel. Vol. 89(9), pp.2260–6, 2010.
[117] J. Caro. “Catalysis in Micro-structured membrane reactors with nano-designed membranes”. Chin J Catal., Vol. 29, pp. 1169–77, 2008.
[118] S. Baroutian, M. K. Aroua, A.A.A. Raman, N.M.N. Sulaiman. “A packed bed membrane reactor for production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst”. Bioresour Technol., Vol.102(2), pp.1095–102, 2011.
[119] P. Cao, M. A. Dube, A.Y. Tremblay. “Methanol recycling in the production of biodiesel in a membrane reactor”. Fuel Process Technol. Vol. 87(6), pp. 825–33, 2008.
[120] L.H.C. Carlson, R.A.F. Machado. J.C.C. Petrus et al. “Performance of reverse osmosis membranes in the separation of supercritical CO and essential oils”. J Membr Sci. Vol. 237(1), pp. 71–6, 2004.
[121] I.M. Atadashi, M. K. Aroua, A.A.R. Abdul, N.M.N. Sulaiman. “Membrane biodiesel production and refining technology: a critical review”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. Vol. 15(9), pp.5051–62, 2011.
[122] B. Singh, J. Kaur, K. Singh. “Production of biodiesel from used mustard oil and its performance analysis in internal combustion engine”. J. Energ. Resour. Technol. Vol. 132, pp. 31001-31004, 2010.
[123] B.F. Lin, J.H. Huang, D.Y. Huang. “Experimental study of the effects of vegetable oil methyl ester on DI diesel engine performance characteristics and pollutant emissions”. Fuel, Vol. 88, pp.1779–85, 2009.
[124] M. Lapuerta, J.M. Herreros, L.L. Lyons, R. García-Contreras, Y. Brice. “Effect of the alcohol type used in the production of waste cooking oil biodiesel on diesel performance and emissions”. Fuel, Vol.87, pp.3161–9, 2008.
[125] Z. Utlu, M.S. Koçak. “The effect of biodiesel fuel obtained from waste frying oil on direct injection diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions”. Renew Energ ., Vol. 33, pp.1936–41, 2008.
[126] A.C. Hansen, M.R. Gratton, W. Yuan. “Diesel engine performance and NOx emissions from oxygenated biofuels and blends with diesel fuel”. Trans ASABE , Vol. 49, pp. 589–95, 2006.
[127] S. Murillo, J.L. Mıguez, J. Porteiro, E. Granada, J.C. Moran. “Performance and exhaust emissions in the use of biodiesel in outboard diesel engines”. Fuel, Vol.86, pp.1765–71, 2007.
[128] C. Carraretto, A. Macor, A. Mirandola, A. Stoppato, S. Tonon. “Biodiesel as alternative fuel: experimental analysis and energetic evaluations”. Energy, Vol. 29, pp.2195–211, 2004.
[129] M. Gumus, S. Kasifoglu. “Performance and emission evaluation of a compression ignition engine using a biodiesel (apricot seed kernel oil methyl ester) and its blends with diesel fuel”. Biomass Bioenerg., Vol. 34, pp.134–9, 2010.
[130] N. Usta, E. Öztürk, Ö. Can, E.S. Conkur, A.H. Nason et al. “Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a diesel engine”. Energ Convers Manage., Vol.46, pp.741–55, 2005.
[131] B. Ghobadian, H. Rahimi, A.M. Nikbakht, G. Najafi, T.F. Yusaf. “Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using waste cooking biodiesel fuel with an artificial neural network”. Renew Energ Vol.34, pp.976–82, 2009.
[132] J.D. Mejia, N. Salgado, C. E. Orrego. “Effect of blends of Diesel and Palm-Castor biodiesels on viscosity, cloud point and flash point”. Indus. Crops Produc. Vol. 43, pp.791–797, 2013.
[133] C. Öner, S. Altun. “Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine”. Appl Energ., Vol. 86, pp.2114–20, 2009.
[134] A. Monyem, J.H. Van Gerpen, M. Canakci. “The effect of timing and oxidation on emissions from biodiesel-fueled engines”. Trans ASAE., Vol. 44, pp.35–42, 2001.
[135] H. Aydin, H. Bayindir. “Performance and emission analysis of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine”. Renew Energ., Vol. 35, pp. 588–92, 2010.
[136] A. Shirneshan. “Brake torque of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel”. International Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol 2(6), pp.242-246, 2013.
[137] L. Darkwah., A. Hammond., E. Ramde, F. Kemausuor, A. Addo. “Biofuels industry development in Africa”. Background paper prepared for AU/Brazil/UNIDO high level seminar on biofuels in Africa (30 July–1st August 2007). African Union Commission, Addis Ababa: Ethiopia; 2007.
[138] D. Pillay, E.J. Da Silva. “Sustainable development and bioeconomic prosperity in Africa: bio-fuels and the South African gateway”. Afr J Biotechnol. Vol 8, 2009.
[139] H. Winkler. “Energy policies for sustainable development in South Africa”. Energy Sustain Dev. Vol.11, pp.26–34, 2007.
[140] E. Antwi, E. C. Bensah, D. A. Quansah, R. Arthur, J. Ahiekpor. “Ghana's biofuels policy: challenges and the way forward”. Int J Energy Environ. Vol.1, pp.805–14, 2010.
[141] R. Bissio. “Biomass energy and the implications for climate and food: The Uruguayan response”. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Vol 70(1), pp.9-11, 2015.
[142] Y.Gjaligué. “Energie alternative: la vague biocarburant déferle sur le Cameroun”. In Le Financier d’Afrique développement, 2008, N° 073, p.5.
[143] F. Pretz. “South African foreign policy and SADC goals-lockstep or deadlock?”. GRIN Verlag, 2008.
[144] J.A. Mathews. “Biofuels: what a biopact between North and South could achieve”. Energy Policy. Vol.35, pp.3550–70, 2007.
[145]The Hende Mozambique project. Available from: http://www.hendewayela.com/documents/28.html; 2009.
[146] C.B. Jumbe, F. Msiska, M. Madjera. “Biofuels development in Sub-Saharan Africa: are the policies conducive?” Energy Policy. Vol. 37, pp.4980–6, 2009.
[147] A.F.N. Abdul-Manan, A. Baharuddin, L.W. Chang. “A detailed survey of the palm and biodiesel industry landscape in Malaysia”. Energy. Vol. 76, pp.931–41, 2014.
[148] Competence Platform on Energy Crop and Agroforestry Systems for Arid and Semi-arid Ecosystems (COMPETE). Performance evaluation of national and regional biofuels policies in SSA; Available from: http://www.competebioafrica.net/policy/Annex6-2-4-COMPETE-032448-2ndReportPerformanceEvaluation-Final.pdf. 2006.
[149] S. Kartha, G. Leach, S.C. Rajan. “Advancing bioenergy for sustainable development: guideline for policymakers and investors”, ESMAP Report 300/05, World Bank, Washington, DC, USA. Available from: http://www.esmap.org [accessed 23.05.18].
[150] L. Cotula, S. Vermeulen, R. Leonard, J. Keeley. “Land grab or development opportunity? Agricultural investment and international land deals in Africa”. FAO, IIED and IFAD, pp.26-31, 2009.
[151] M.G. Lorenz. “Small steps toward membrane distillation commercialization”. SPIE – Int Soc Opt Eng. 2007.
[152] F.A. Banat, l.J. Simand. “Membrane distillation for dilute ethanol: separation from aqueous streams”. J. Membr. Sci. Vol. 163, pp. 333–48, 1999.
[153] B.R. DeWalt. “Using indigenous knowledge to improve agriculture and natural resource management”. Hum. Org. Vol. 53, pp.123–31, 1994.
[154] G. Karlsson, K. Banda. “Biofuels for sustainable rural development and empowerment of women: case studies from Africa and Asia, 2009.
[155] K. Subramanian, S. Singal, M. Saxena, S. Singhal. “Utilization of liquid biofuels in automotive diesel engines: an Indian perspective”. Biomass Bioenergy. Vol. 29, pp.65–72, 2005.
[156] A. M. Mohibbe, A. Waris, N. Nahar. “Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India”. Biomass Bioenergy. Vol. 29, pp.293–302, 2005.
[157] U. Poth. “Drying oils and related products”. Ullmann's Encycl Ind Chem., 2001.
[158] K. Yan, A. Chen. “Efficient hydrogenation of biomass-derived furfural and levulinic acid on the facilely synthesized noble-metal-free Cu–Cr catalyst”. Energy. Vol. 58, pp.357–63, 2013.
[159] K. Yan, A. Chen. “Selective hydrogenation of furfural and levulinic acid to biofuels on the ecofriendly Cu–Fe catalyst”. Fuel. Vol. 115, pp.101–8, 2014.
[160] I. Sarantopoulos, F. Che, T. Tsoutsos et al. “An evaluation of a small-scale biodiesel production technology: case study of Mango'o village, Center province, Cameroon”. Phys Chem Earth. Vol.34, pp.55–8, 2009.
[161] M. Takase, W. Feng, W. Wang et al. “Silybum marianum oil as a new potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel: a comparison of its production using conventional and ultrasonic assisted method”. Fuel Process Technol. Vol. 123, pp.19–26, 2014.
[162] M. Takase, M. Zhang, W. Feng et al. “Application of zirconia modified with KOH as heterogeneous solid base catalyst to new nonedible oil for biodiesel”. Energy Convers Manag. Vol. 80, pp.117–25, 2014.
[163] M. Martin, A.G. Mwakaje, M. Eklund. “Biofuel development initiatives in Tanzania: development activities, scales of production and conditions for implementation and utilization”. J Clean Prod. Vol.17, pp.69–76, 2009.
[164] A. Stephenson, H. von Blottnitz, A. Brent, J. Dennis, S. Scott. “Global warming potential and fossil-energy requirements of biodiesel production scenarios in South Africa”. Energy Fuels. Vol. 24, pp.2489–99, 2010.
[165] B.R. Moser. “Biodiesel production, properties, and feedstocks”. In Vitro Cell Dev Bio Plant, Vol. 45, pp.229–66, 2009.
[166] A.S. Huzayyin, A.H. Bawady, M.A. Rady, A. Dawood. “Experimental evaluation of Diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and Diesel fuel”. Energy Convers Manag. Vol. 45, pp.2093–112, 2004.
[167] M.S. Radwan, M.A. Ismail, S.M.S. Elfeky, O.S.M. Abu-Elayazeed. “Jojoba methyl ester as a diesel fuel substitute: preparation and characterization”. Appl Thermal Eng. Vol. 27, pp.314–22, 2007.
[168] A. Ramadhas, C. Muraleedharan, S. Jayaraj. “Performance and emission evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl esters of rubber seed oil”. Renew Energy. Vol. 30, pp.1789–800, 2005.
[169] N. Kapilan, R.P. Reddy. “Effect of injection time on the performance and emissions of LPG ME of Mahual oil dual fuel engine”. SAE paper 2007.
[170] U. Rashid, F. Anwar, B.R. Moser, G. Knothe. “Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel”. Bioresour Technol. Vol. 99, pp.8175–9, 2008.
[171] P. Raghu, A. L. Kurup, R. Shyamsundar, S. Subrahmanuyan, V. Ramachadiran. “Emission and performance characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with blended Moringa Oleifera oil”. SAE paper 2009.
[172] I. Kralova, J. Sjöblom. “Biofuels–renewable energy sources: a review”. J Dispers Sci Technol. Vol.31, pp. 409–25. 2010;
[173] N. Usta, B. Aydoğan, A. Çon, E. Uğuzdoğan, S. Özkal. “Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil”. Energy Convers Manag. Vol.52, pp.2031–9, 2011.
[174] I.B. Banković-Ilić, I.J. Stojković, O.S. Stamenković, V.B. Veljkovic, Y.T. Hung. “Waste animal fats as feedstocks for biodiesel production”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. Vol. 32(0), pp.238–54, 2014.
[175] M. M. Bora, P. Gogoi, D. C. Deka, D. K. Kakati. “Synthesis and characterization of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seed oil-based alkyd resin”. Industrial Crops and Products. Vol.52, pp. 721–728, 2014.
[176] M.M. Gui, K. Lee, S. Bhatia. “Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as biodiesel feedstock”. Energy. Vol. 33, pp.1646–53, 2008.
[177] B. M. Komane, I. Vermaak, P.P. Guy, et al. “Beauty in Baobab: a pilot study of the safety and efficacy of Adansonia digitata seed oil”. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. Vol. 27, pp. 1–8, 2017.
[178] L. Robert, Jarret, J. Irvin, Levy. “Oil and Fatty Acid Contents in Seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad”. J. Agric. Food Chem., Vol. 60 (20), pp. 5199–5204, 2012.
[179] A. Edidiong, 1.Essien, M. Ubong, Eduok. “Chemical analysis of Citrullus lanatus seed oil obtained from Southern Nigeria”. Elixir Org. Chem. Vol. 54, pp.12700-12703, 2013.
[180] V.N. Ariharan, V.N. Meena Devi, N.K. Parameswaran, N. P. Prasad. “Physico-Chemical Analysis On Croton Tiglium Oil For Potential Use As Biodiesel”. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. Vol. 6(2) (B), pp. 231 – 236, 2015.
[181] M. O. Bello, M. Abdul-Hammed, A. S. Adekunle, O. T. Fasogbon. “Nutrient Contents and Fatty Acids Profiles of Leaves and Seeds of Croton zambesicus”. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. Vol. 6(3), pp. 398-402, 2014.
[182] Z. Wen, M.B. Johnson. “Microalgae as a feedstock for biofuel production”. Commun Mark Coll Agric Life Sci. Vol.7, pp.442–886, 2009.
[183] P. Schlagermann, G. Gottlicher, R. Dillschneider, R. Rosello-Sastre, C. Posten. “Composition of Algal Oil and Its Potential as Biofuel”. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Combustion. Article ID 285185, p 14. 2012;
[184] P. A. Monford, P. Jay, A. P. Rajan. “Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable Fuel of Future”. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Biotechnol Res Int., 272814. 2014;
[185] D.A. Alabi, O.R. Akinsulire, M.A. Sanyaolu. “Qualitative determination of chemical and nutritional composition of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth”. African Journal of Biotechnology. Vol 4 (8), pp.812-815, 2005.
[186] G.N. Elemo, B.O. Elemo, O.O. Oladunmoye, O.L. Erukainure. “Comprehensive investigation into the nutritional composition of dehulled and defatted African locust bean seed (Parkia biglobosa)”. African Journal of Plant Science. Vol 5(5), pp.291-295, 2011.
[187] J.A. Kinast. “Production of biodiesels from multiple feedstocks and properties of biodiesels and biodiesel/diesel blends”. NREL final report, SR-510-31460, 2003.
[188] I. Lee, L. Johnson, E. Hammond. “Use of branched-chain esters to reduce the crystallization temperature of biodiesel”. J Am Oil Chem Soc. Vol. 72 (10), pp.1155–60, 1995.
[189] N. M. W. Ghazali Wan, R. Mamat, H.H. Masjuki, G. Najafi. “Effects of biodiesel from different feedstocks on engine performance and emissions: A review”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Vol.51, pp.585–602, 2015.
[190] A. Sarve, SS. Sonawane, M.N. Varma. “Ultrasound assisted biodiesel production from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil using barium hydroxide as a heterogeneous catalyst: Comparative assessment of prediction abilities between response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN)”. Ultrason. Sonochem, 2015.
[191] M.G.A. Tathilene Bezerra, E.A.R. Francisco, T.D. Arruda David et al. “Chromatography, spectroscopy and thermal analysis of oil and biodiesel of sesame (Sesamum indicum) - An alternative for the Brazilian Northeast”. Industrial Crops and Products. Vol. 91, pp. 264–271, 2016.
[192] U. Salgın, O. Doker, C. Ayla. “Extraction of sunflower oil with supercritical CO2: Experiments and modeling”. J. of Supercritical Fluids. Vol. 38, pp.326–331, 2006.
[193] C.C. Enweremadu, O.j Alamu. “Development and characterization of biodiesel from shea nut butter”. Int. Agrophysics. Vol. 24, pp.29-34, 2010.
[194] E. Betiku, S.S. Okunsolawo, S.O. Ajala, O. S.O. dedele. “Performance evaluation of artificial neural network coupled with generic algorithm and response surface methodology in modeling and optimization of biodiesel production process parameters from shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) nut butter”. Renewable Energy. Vol.76, pp.408-417, 2015.
[195] O. J. Alamu, T. A. Akintola, C.C. Enweremadu, A. E. Adeleke. “Characterization of palm-kernel oil biodiesel produced through NaOH-catalysed transesterification process”. Scientific Research and Essay. Vol.3 (7), pp.308-311, 2008.
[196] H. A. Iortyer, B. Likita. “Energy and Exergy Analysis of a CI engine fueled with biodiesel fuel from palm kernel oil and its blends with petroleum diesel”. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS). Vol. 4(7), pp.87-97, 2017.
[197] C. Lamaisri, V. Punsuvon, S. Chanprame et al. “Relationship between fatty acid composition and biodiesel quality for nine commercial palm oils”. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. Vol. 37(4), pp.389-395, 2015.
[198] J. Ghazanfari, B. Najaf, S. F. Ardabili, S. Shamshirband. “Limiting factors for the use of palm oil biodiesel in a diesel engine in the context of the ASTM standard”. Cogent Engineering. Vol. 4, pp. 14112-21, 2017.
[199] O.O. Oniya, A.I. Bamgboye. “Production of biodiesel from groundnut (Arachis hypogea, L.) oil”. Agric Eng Int: CIGR Journal. Vol. 16(1), pp.143-150, 2014.
[200] S.J. Ojolo, A.O. Adelaja, G.M. Sobamowo. “Production of Bio-Diesel from Palm Kernel Oil and Groundnut Oil”. Advanced Materials Research. Vol. 367, pp.501-506, 2012.
[201] N. A. Musa, G. M. Teran, S. A. Yaman. “Characterization of Coconut Oil and Its Biodiesel”. JSRR. Vol. 9(6), pp.1-6, 2016.
[202] M. Haas, K. Scott, W. Marmer, T. Foglia. “In situ alkaline transesterification: An effective method for the production of fatty acid esters from vegetable oils”. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Vol. 81(1), pp.83-89, 2004.
[203] H. A. Hammad Khalifeh, V.V. Zhmurko, O.A. Avksentyeva. “Seed Protein and Oil Content of the Soybean Cultivars under Different Climate Condition (Glycine max (L.)Merr.)”. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. Vol. 12(5), pp. 603-607, 2012.
[204] K.Y. Ashok, E.K. Mohd, M. D. Alok, Amit Pal. “Performance and emission characteristics of a transportation diesel engine operated with non-edible vegetable oils biodiesel”. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering. Vol. 8, pp.236–244, 2016.
[205] B. Sanjay. “Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) Seed Oil Biodiesel as an Alternative and Renewable Fuel for Diesel Engines: A Review”. Int.J. ChemTech Res. Vol. 7(6), pp. 2823-2840, 2015.
[206] T. Ngoya, F.A. Elizabeth, O. Oluwaseun. “Optimisation of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil and eggshell ash”. South african journal of chemical engineering. Vol. 23, pp.145-156, 2017.
[207] R. Chakraborty, A.K. Gupta, R. Chowdhury. “Conversion of slaughterhouse and poultry farm animal fats and wastes to biodiesel: parametric sensitivity and fuel quality assessment”. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. Vol. 29(0), pp.120–34, 2014.
Published
2019-10-16
Section
Articles