Carbon Neutral Campsites Due to Operational Energy Use in the Mediterranean Region: Are they Feasible?
AbstractIncrease of energy efficiency and decrease of carbon emissions in the global tourism industry are necessary for the mitigation of climate change. Campsites, like other types of tourism accommodation, utilize mainly fossil fuels for covering their energy requirements. Use of renewable energy technologies for covering part or all of their energy needs is desirable since it would reduce their carbon footprint. Various renewable energy sources which are abundant in the Mediterranean region could be used for electricity, heat and cooling generation in campsites located in this area. These include solar energy, solid biomass, and wind energy combined with high efficiency heat pumps. Current advances in their technologies allow their commercial use in many daily applications since they are mature, reliable and cost-effective. Additionally, carbon emissions due to operational energy use in campsites could be offset with carbon sequestration from trees. Solar thermal energy combined with solar photovoltaic and heat pumps could cover all the operational energy use in campsites located in the Mediterranean region in a reliable and cost-effective way. It has been found that for a Mediterranean campsite hosting 150 guests, the total installation cost of a solar thermal system, a solar photovoltaic system and a high efficiency heat pump covering all its annual energy requirements is 122,884 €. It is concluded that there are no technical or economic barriers for reducing or even zeroing the carbon footprint due to energy use in campsites, allowing the increase of their sustainability and the promotion of eco-efficiency in the tourism industry.
Climate Change and Tourism, Responding to Global Challenges, UNEP, 2008, retrieved at 12/7/2019 from https://sdt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/climate2008.pdf
S. Gossling, P. Peeters, J.-P. Ceron, G. Dubois, T. Patterson & R.B. Rishardson. “The eco-efficiency of tourism”, Ecological Economics, Vol. 54, pp. 417-434, 2005. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.10.006
G. Dubois & J.-P. Ceron. “Tourism and climate change: Proposals for a research agenda”, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 14(4), pp. 399-415, 2006. DOI: 10.2167/jost539.0
J.L. Chenoweth. “Is tourism with a low impact on climate possible?”, Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, Vol. 1(3), pp. 274-287, 2009. DOI: 10.1108/17554210910980611
V. Castellani & S. Sala. “Ecological footprint: a way to assess the impact of tourist’s choices at the local scale”, In the conference Sustainable Tourism proceedings, 2008, pp. 197-206. doi:10.2495/ST080201
Hotel Global De-carbonization Report, International Tourism Partnership, 2017. Retrieved at 23/9/2019 from http://www.green-partner.nl/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/6-ITP-GLOBAL-HOTEL-DECARBONISATION-REPORT-2017.pdf
Towards a low carbon travel and tourism sector, World Economic Forum, 2009. Retrieved at 23/9/2019 from http://www.greeningtheblue.org/sites/default/files/Towards%20a%20low%20carbon%20travel%20&%20tourism%20sector.pdf
P. Torcellini, S. Pless & M. Deru. “Zero Energy Buildings: A critical look at the definition”, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US Department of Energy, CP-550-39833, June 2006, Retrieved at 13/9/2019 from https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/39833.pdf
Net Zero Carbon Buildings: A framework definition, UK Green Building Council, April 2019, Retrieved at 16/9/2019 from https://www.ukgbc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Net-Zero-Carbon-Buildings-A-framework-definition.pdf
S. Becken, Ch. Frampton & D. Simmons. “Energy consumption patterns in the accommodation sector - The New Zealand case”, Ecological Economics, Vol. 39(3), pp. 371-386, 2001. DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8009(01)00229-4
S. Becken, D. Simmons & Ch. Frampton. “Segmenting tourists by their travel pattern for insights into achieving energy efficiency”, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 42(1), pp. 48-56, 2003. DOI: 10.1177/0047287503253938
Best Environmental Management Practice in the Tourism Sector, 9.3 Campsite energy efficiency and Renewable Energy installation, E.U., 2017. Retrieved at 23/9/2017 from http://susproc.jrc.ec.europa.eu/activities/emas/documents/TourismBEMP.pdf
Sh. Rehman, A.A. Shash & O.S. Baghabra Al-Amoudi. “Photovoltaic technology of electricity generation for dessert camping”, International Journal of Global Energy Issues, Vol. 26(3-4), pp. 322-340, 2006.
Solar thermal in the Mediterranean region: Solar thermal action plan, OME report for GSWH-UNEP-UNDP, December 2012, Retrieved at 16/9/2019 from https://www.b2match.eu/system/stworkshop2013/files/STAP.pdf?1357834608,used
Knattholmen Campsite, Retrieved at 16/9/2019 from https://www.free-energy.com/en/references/commercial-building
J. Vourdoubas. “Energy consumption and use of renewable energy sources in hotels: A case study in Crete, Greece“,Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 4(2), pp. 75-87, 2016. DOI: 10.15640/jthm.v4n2a5
J. Vourdoubas. “Possibility of using solar energy for the creation of carbon neutral hotels in Mediterranean countries” Energy and Environment Research, Vol. 9(1), pp. 1-8, 2019. doi:10.5539/eer.v9n1p1
S. Tselepis. “The PV market developments in Greece, Net-metering study cases”, 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 14-18/9/2015, DOI:10.4229/EUPVSEC20152015-7DV.4.26
D. Del Moreto, T. Annunziata Branca & V. Colla. “Energy efficiency and reduction of CO2 emissions from campsites management in a protected area”, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 222, pp. 368-377, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.05.084
B. Bernal, L.T. Murray & T.R.H. Pearson. “Global carbon dioxide removal rates from forest landscape restoration activities”, Carbon Balance and Management, Vol. 13(1), pp. 22, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13021-018-0110-8
Using forest carbon credits to offset emissions in the downstream business, Concawe report No 9/17, 2017, Retrieved at 20/8/2019 from https://www.concawe.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Rpt_17-9.pdf
E.Ch. Toochi. “Carbon sequestration: how much can forestry sequester CO2?” Forestry Research and Engineering: International Journal, Vol. 2(3), pp. 148-150, 2018. DOI: 10.15406/freij.2018.02.00040
Copyright (c) 2019 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.