Management of Transparency in Outsourcing - A Case of ZCAS


  • Geoffrey Kapasa Mweshi School of Social Sciences, P. O. Box 35243, Dedan Kimathi Road, ZCAS University, Lusaka, Zambia
  • Mr Kwesi Sakyi School of Social Sciences, P. O. Box 35243, Dedan Kimathi Road, ZCAS University, Lusaka, Zambia


management, transparency, outsourcing, trust, communication, effectiveness


This paper contributes to the on-going studies on outsourcing, as within the recent past, most of the outsourcing-related studies have focused on process control and the understanding of decision determinants of process control. With respect to outsourcing, this has been an attractive option for management, as its specific objectives impacts on the organisation’s performance and stakeholder value. However, management of transparency in outsourcing still requires more confirmation from research. Whenever researchers look at public and private organisations’ reports with regard to abuses, it bears negatively on economic impact.  Much of the evidence that has been found is often based on process-related measures, with little discussion on management of intra-organisational relationship. These reports on outsourcing effects raise some questions that are fundamental for empirical research. Considering the impact of transparency in outsourcing on the organisation’s operational performance measures and perceived value, management’s focus has been on strategic perspective with the tactical role given little attention. This study has been done with a focus towards empirical examination of the impact of management’s role in ensuring transparency in outsourcing of goods and services on the organisations’ performance and value. The results are based on a sample of 299 respondents from ZCAS taken through a survey of the stakeholders for the outsourced services. The reference point of concern requiring transparency and management influence is from the publicly-available auditor’s report showing abuses and other vices. This is to help understand why and what similar management challenges   facing departments operating in the public sector and how these challenges affect the institutions with regard to transparency in outsourcing. This research has made a number of contributions to both theory and practice. First, it has provided some insight to the empirical studies by examining the role of management in ensuring transparency in outsourcing and how transparency impacts on firms’ performance for the achievement of perceived value for stakeholders. Secondly, an empirical study on management relations in outsourcing for the stakeholder trust has been covered.

Thirdly, this study is aimed at influencing management to take a leading role in ensuring transparency in outsourcing in order to obtain value. The papers conclusion is based  on  management assumptions on the inadequate  communication with employees concerning rationale for outsourcing decisions.


. Antoncic B, (2007),"Entrepreneurship: a comparative structural equation modelling study" Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 107 Issue 3 pp. 309 - 325

. Borders, A, Earleywine, M, & Huey, S, (2004), “Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory”. Adolescence, 39, 539-551.

. Cameron S. & Price D (2009), “Business Research Methods” A practical approach, Chartered Institute of Personnel Development. Fakenham Photosetting LTD Norfolk

. Chopra S. & Meindl P. (2007), ‘Supply Chain Management, Strategy, Planning & Operations,’ 3rd edition, Pearson International Edition

. Christensen L.T, (2002),"Corporate communication: the challenge of transparency", Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 7 Issue 3 pp. 162 – 168

. Christopher M., (2005), ‘Logistics and Supply Chain Management, creating value- Adding Networks’, Prentice Hall, Financial Times.

. Cooke F.L (2006), “Outsourcing of public services and implications for managerial knowledge and careers” Journal of Management Development, Volume: 25 Issue: 3, 2006

. Damodaran A, (2007),"Information transparency and valuation: can you value what you cannot see?” Managerial Finance, Vol. 33 Issue 11 pp. 877 – 892

. Dekkers D, (2011),"Impact of strategic decision making for outsourcing on managing manufacturing", International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 31 Issue 9 pp. 935 - 965

. Dicken P. (2011), “Global Shift” mapping the changing contours of the world economy, 6th edition, London: Sage.

. Eckersley, P.A, Ferry B. L & Zakaria, Z. (2014), “A ‘panoptical’ or ‘synoptical’ approach to monitoring performance Local public services in England and the widening accountability gap” Critical Perspectives on Accounting 25 (2013) 529–538; journal homepage:

. Ellram, L. M., Tate, W. L., & Billington, C.(2008). “Offshore outsourcing of professional services: A transaction cost economics perspective”. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 148-163

. Elmuti, D. (2003),"The Perceived Impact of Outsourcing on Organizational Performance", American Journal of Business, Vol. 18 Issue 2 pp. 33 – 42

. Forstenlechner I & Lettice , (2007),"Cultural differences in motivating global Knowledge workers" Equal Opportunities International Vol. 26 Issue 8 pp. 823 – 833

. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R., Tatham, R. and Black, W. (2006), Multivariate Data Analysis Upper Saddle River, NY: Pearson Education. Inc

. Joshi A. (2013), “Do They Work? Assessing the Impact of Transparency and Accountability Initiatives in Service Delivery,” Development Policy Review, 2013, Overseas Development Institute. Published by John Wiley & Sons Inc., Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK 31 (S1): s29-s48

. Kaufmann N. D. L and Carter C.R, (2012),"Increasing the rigor of grounded theory research – a review of the SCM literature", International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management Vol. 42 Issue 8/9 pp. 742 – 763

. Ireland R.D, Hoskisson R.E, & Hitt M.A (2013), “The Management of Strategy, concepts and cases”.10th edition, South Western Cengage Learning.

. Wu L, & Park D, (2009),"Dynamic outsourcing through process modularization", Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 15 Iss 2 pp. 225 – 244.

. Kuratko D.F. (2014), “Introduction to Entrepreneurship”, 9th edition, International edition, South –Western, CENGAGE Learning.

. Burns B.R & Burns R.A (2008), “Business Research methods and Statistics Using SPSS”, first publication. Sage publication ISBN 078-1-4129-4530—1

. Christensen L.T, (2002),"Corporate communication: the challenge of transparency", Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 7 Iss 3 pp. 162 – 168

. Webb L & Laborde J, (2005),"Crafting a successful outsourcing vendor/client relationship", Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 11 Iss 5 pp. 437 – 443.




How to Cite

Mweshi, G. K. ., & Sakyi, M. K. . (2019). Management of Transparency in Outsourcing - A Case of ZCAS. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 61(1), 29–44. Retrieved from