Chemical and Sensory Comparison of Classical and Alternative Systems for the Ageing of Wine Distillate


  • Sopio Tchabashvili Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Biosystems Engineering, Georgian Technical University, 17 Guramishvili, Tbilisi 0160, Georgia
  • Davit Abzianidze Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Biosystems Engineering, Georgian Technical University, 17 Guramishvili, Tbilisi 0160, Georgia


wine distillate, oak barrel, artificially aged, chemical components, oak chips


The chemical components were quantified in artificially aged (with oak chips) and barrel-aged wine distillate. These components belong to various chemical families, including aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionic aldehyde, furfural, coniferaldehyde, synapaldehyde), higher alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-Propanol, butanol, isobutanol, amyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, 1-hexanol), volatile acids (ethanoic acid, propionic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid) and esters (methyl formate, ethyl acetate, butyl butyrate, methyl butyrate). Chemical analysis was performed by classical methods of analytical chemistry. During the seven month aging process all the chemical components were affected by ageing systems. The analysis of alcoholic strength by volume, aldehydes and volatile acids showed a great discrimination of the brandies based on the ageing system. The loss of alcohol was lower in a glass vessel with oak chips than in oak wood barrel. Thus, artificial ageing is cost-efficient method than the classical one. Moreover, the ageing system affected the sensory profile of the wine distillates as well. The present study demonstrated that alternative ageing up to five months is the most promising technology to get desirable colour. However, traditional wine spirit ageing method is preferable to produce high quality brandy compared to alternatives as spirit aged in Limousin oak barrels are more matured than the one aged with oak chips.


A. Tsakiris, S. Kallithraka, Y.Kourkoutas, “Grape brandy production, composition and sensory evaluation”, J. Sci. Food Agric., vol. 94, pp. 404-414, 2014.

Y. Zhao, Y. Xu, J. Li, W. Fan, W. Jiang, “Profile of volatile compounds in 11 brandies by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry”, J. Food Sci., vol. 74, pp. 90-99, 2009.

D. Slaghenaufi, C. Franc, N. Mora, S. Marchand, M.C. Perello, G. de Revel, “Quantification of three galloylglucoside flavour precursors by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in brandies aged in oak wood barrels”, J. Chromatogr. A, vol. 1442, pp. 26-32, 2016.

K. Nishimura, R. Matsuyama, Maturation and maturation chemistry, “The science and technology of whiskies”, London, in: Piggott Jr., R. Sharp (Eds), 1989, pp. 253–263.

J.R. Mosedale, J.L. Puech, “Wood maturation of distilled beverages”, Trends Food Sci. Technol., vol. 9, pp. 95-101, 1998.

M. Navarro, N. Kontoudakis, T. Giordanengo, S. Gómez-Alonso, E. García-Romero, F. Fort, J.M. Canals, I. Hermosín-Gutíerrez, F. Zamora, “Oxygen consumption by oak chips in a model wine solution; Influence of the botanical origin, toast level and ellagitannin content”, Food Chem., vol. 199, pp. 822-827, 2016.

J. Laqui-Estaña, R. López-Solís, Á. Peña-Neira, M. Medel-Marabolí, E. Obreque-Slier, “Wines in contact with oak wood: the impact of the variety (Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon), format (barrels, chips and staves), and aging time on the phenolic composition”, J. Sci. Food Agric., vol. 99, pp.436-448, 2019.

I. Caldeira, O. Anjos, V. Portal, A.P. Belchior, S. Canas, “Sensory and chemical modifications of wine-brandy aged with chestnut and oak wood fragmentsin comparison to wooden barrels”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 660, pp. 43–52, 2010.

S. Canas, I. Caldeira, A.P. Belchior, “Extraction/oxidation kineticts of low molecular weight compounds in wine brandy resulting from different ageing technologies”, Food Chem., vol. 138, pp. 2460-2467, 2013.

I. Caldeira, R. Santos, J.M. Ricardo-da-Silva, O. Anjos, H. Mira, A.P. Belchior, S. Canas, “Kinetics of odorant compounds in wine brandies aged in different systems”, Food Chem., vol. 211, pp. 937-946, 2016.

S. Canas, I. Caldeira, A.P. Belchior, “Effect of altenative ageing systems on the wine brandy sensory profile”, Ciência Téc. Vitiv., vol. 24, pp. 33–40, 2009.

T.G.T. Almeida, A. Mateus, A.P. Belchior, S. Canas, “Comparison of alternative systems for the ageing of wine brandy. Wood shape and wood botanical species effect”, Ciência Téc. Vitiv., vol. 18, pp. 29–41, 2003.

T. Plebański, B. Ogonowska, “Polish standard alcoholometric tables at reference temperature 20 °C”, Warsaw, 2009, pp. 123.

A.R. Alcarde, L.M. Souza, A.M. Bortoletto, “Formation of volatile and maturation-related congeners during the aging of sugarcane spirit in oak barrels”, J. Inst. Brew., vol. 120, pp. 529–536, 2014.

F. Santos, A.C. Correia, M. Ortega-Heras, J. García-Lomillo, M.L. González-SanJosé, A.M. Jordão, J.M. Ricardo-da-Silva, “Acacia, cherry and oak wood chips used for a short aging period of rosé wines: effects on general phenolic parameters, volatile composition and sensory profile”, J. Sci. Food Agric., vol. 99, pp. 3588-3603, 2019.

I. CaldeiraBruno, R. de Sousa, A.P. Belchior, M.C. Clímaco, “A sensory and chemical approach to the aroma of wooden aged Lourinhã wine brandy”, Ciência Téc. Vitiv., vol. 23, pp. 97–110, 2008.

V. Litchev, “Influence of oxidation processes on the development of the taste and flavor of wine distillates”, Am. J. Enol. Vitic., vol. 40, pp. 31–35, 1989.

E. Guchu, M.C. Díaz-Maroto, M.S. Pérez-Coello, M.A. González-Vinas, M.D. Cabezudo Ibánez, “Volatile composition and sensory characteristics of Chardonnay wines treated with American and Hungarian oak chips”, Food Chem., vol. 99, pp. 350–359, 2006.

M. Del Alamo Sanza, I. Nevares Dominguez, S. Garcı´a Merino, “Influence of different ageing systems and oak woods on aged wine color and anthocianin composition”, Eur. Food Res. Technol., vol. 219, pp. 124–132, 2004.




How to Cite

Tchabashvili, S. ., & Abzianidze, D. . (2019). Chemical and Sensory Comparison of Classical and Alternative Systems for the Ageing of Wine Distillate. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 60(1), 1–10. Retrieved from