Experimental Culture of Averrhoa Carambola in Environmental Application


  • Dr. Kitambala Kaboka Achille Department of sciences of the environment, Faculty of Science of the University of Kinshasa
  • Efoto Eyale Louis Départment of physical, Faculty of Science of the University of Kinshasa
  • Kidikwadi T. Esthache Department of sciences of the environment, Faculty of Science of the University of Kinshasa
  • Mvingu Kamalandua Bienvenu Départment of chemical, Faculty of Science of the University of Kinshasa
  • Lokoki Luyeye Félicien Department of Biology, Faculty of Science of the University of Kinshasa
  • Kikufi Antony Department of Biology, Faculty of Science of the University of Kinshasa
  • Biey Makaly Emmanuel Department of sciences of the environment, Faculty of Science of the University of Kinshasa


culture, A. carambola, application


The A. carambola adapts better to the tropical climate in spite of his water requirements.¶12 seeds were planted in almond-flavored holes of the compost. ¶The seeds were placed in one to germoir, then, of the seedbed, the seedlings mended in a perforated ground of three Kilogrammes of the organic matter. ¶Watering with water 1.500mL per day and three times per week boosté the growth which was followed while taking measurements of diameter, the height and the counting of a number of sheets and ramifications. ¶10 plants survived after 12 monts of flight face the Bad water and one new the los of 2 plants. ¶Thèse cultures were carrier out with an aime of créatine a source of juive provisionné of carambola, one bio coagulant for the trématent of the lâchâtes produced in this Mpasa with Kinshasa, in Democratic Republic of Congo. ¶The output was 83 %. ¶


. Agrawal, A.A. & Kurashige, N.S., 2003. A role for isothiocyanates in plant resistance against the specialist herbivore Pieris rapae. J. Chem. Ecol. 29: 1403- 1415;

. Alain dit philippe Bidie, Banga B. N’Guessan, Adou F. Yapo, Jean David N’Guessan et Allico Joseph Djaman, 2011. Activités antioxydantes de dix plante medicinales de la pharmacopée ivoirienne, Article, Sciences & Nature Vol. 8 N°1 :1-11 ;

. Anonyme, 2008. Intoxiqués au Carambole, Clicanoo.com | Publié le 24 juillet;

. Baldwin, I.T., 1988a. The alkaloidal responses of wild tobacco to real and simulated herbivory. Oecologia 77: 378-381.

. Bartlet, E., Kiddle, G., Wiliams, I. & Wallsgrove, R., 1999. Wound-induced increases in the glucosinolate content of oilseed rape and their effect on subsequent herbivory by a crucifer specialist. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 91: 163-167.

. Benslama A., 2016. Substances d’origine végétale, Université Mohamed Khider-Biskra Faculté des sciences exactes et des sciences de la nature et de la vie, Maroc ;

. Bolter, C.J. & Latoszek-Green, M., 1997. Effect of chronic ingestion on the cysteine proteinase inhibitor, E64, on Colorado potato beetle gut proteinases. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 83: 295-303 ;

. Borel, Maquart, Le Peuch, Randoux, Gillery, Bellon et Monboisse, 1997. Biochimie Dynamique P65, De Boeck, Paris, Bruxelles ;

. Cicolella A., 2007. Les composés organiques volatils (COV) : Définition et propriétés, Vemeuil Haltte, France ;

. Constabel, C.P., 1999. A survey of herbivore-inducible defensive proteins and phytochemicals. In Induced plant defense against pathogens and herbivores, biochemistry, ecology and agriculture, eds, A.A. Agrawal, S. Tuzun, & E. Bent, the American Phytopathologist Society, St Paul, pp. 137-166.

. Duffey, S.S. & Stout, M.J., 1996. Antinutritive and toxic components of plant defense against insects. Arch. Insect. Biochem. Physiol. 32: 3-37;

. Ehrlich, P.R. & Raven, P.H., 1964. Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution 18: 586-608.

. Gravot Antoine, 2009. Support de cours sur le métabolisme secondaire (Equipe pédagogique Physiologie Végétale, UMR 118 APBV), Université de Rennes 1 – L2 UE PHR) ;

. Jaillais, B., Cadoux, F. & Auger, J., 1999. SPME-HPLC analysis of Allium lacrymatory factor and thiosulfinates. Talanta 50: 423-431.

. Karban, R. & Baldwin, I.T., 1997. Induced responses to herbivory, ed, J.N. Thompson, Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 319 pp.

. Koritsas, V.M., Lewis, J.A. & Fenwick, G.R., 1991. Glucosinolate responses of oilseed rape, mustard and kale to mechanical wounding and infestation by the cabbage stem flea bettle. Ann. Appl. Biol. 118: 209-221

. Lancaster, J.E. et Collin, H.A., 1981. Presence of alliinase in isolated vacuoles and of alkyl cysteine sulphoxides in the cytoplasm of bulbs of onion (Allium cepa). Plant Sci. Let. 22: 169-176 ;

. Latham Paul et Konda ku Mbuta, 2006. Quelques plantes utiles du Bas-Congo province, République Démocratique du Congo, Deuxième édition ;

. Metcalf and Eddy, 1991. Waste water engineering. Treatement/Disposal/Reuse 3rd Montréal : McGraw-Hill ;

. Montrichard Estelle, 2013. La carambole, mes recettes, éd… France ;

. Par, P.W. & Tumlinson, J.H., 1999. Plant volatiles as a defense against insect herbivores. Plant Physiol. 121: 325-332.é

. Petter P. et Chudoba J., 1990. Biodegradability of organic substances in the aquatic environment. CRP press 5, Boca, Raton, Ann Arbor) ;

. Ramade François, 2010. Dictionnaire encyclopédique des sciences de la nature et de la biodiversité, DUNOD, France ;

. Ramade François, 2003. Eléments d’écologie fondamentale, 3ème éd. DUNOD, Paris ;

. Rosenthal, G. & Berenbaum, M.R., 1991. Herbivores: their interactions with secondary plant metabolites, eds, G. Rosenthal & M. Berenbaum, Academic Press,Vol. 1, N.Y.

. Taiz, Lincoln & Eduardo Zeiger, 2006. Secondary metabolites and plant defense in: plant physiology, fourth edition ;

. Turlings, T.C.J., Loughrin, J.H., McCall, P.J., Röse, U.S.R., Lewis, W.J. & Tumlinson, J.H., 1995. How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parastic wasps. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 4169-4174.

. Turlings, T.C.J., Tumlinson, J.H. & Lewis, W.J., 1990. Exploitation of herbivore- induced plant odors by host-seeking parasitic wasps. Science 250: 1251-1253.

. Virtanen, A.I., 1965. Studies on organic sulphur compounds and other labile substances in plants. Phytochem. 4: 207-228.

. Weinzerl, R., 1998. Botanicals insecticide, soaps and oils. In: Biological, Biotechnological control of insect pest, eds, J.E. Rechcigl & N.A. Rechcigl. Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 101-121.




How to Cite

Achille, D. K. K. ., Louis, E. E. ., T. Esthache, K. ., Bienvenu, M. K. ., Félicien, L. L. ., Antony, K. ., & Emmanuel, B. M. . (2019). Experimental Culture of Averrhoa Carambola in Environmental Application . American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 60(1), 60–67. Retrieved from https://asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/5135