Assessment of Acid-Base Status, Certain Serum Biochemical and Urine Parameters during the Neonatal Period in Dairy Calves


  • Nawal Mohamed Elkhair Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, 13314, Shambat, Sudan
  • Ahmed Omer Alameen Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, 13314, Shambat, Sudan


Acid-base status, calves, neonatal period, serum and urine parameters, reference range


The objective of the study was to assess acid-base status, certain serum and urine parameters during the neonatal period in claves. Twenty clinically healthy neonate calves (German Blacked-coloured and cross breeds, aged: 4-28 days) were used. The neonates were monitored from birth up to 28 days of age. Jugular venous blood samples were collected to determine various acid-base and serum parameters. Blood gas analysis was performed for pH, PCO2, HCO3? and base excess (BE). Serum samples were used to determine [Na+], [K+], [Cl?], [Pi], total proteins (TP), albumin and osmolality. Anion gap (AG), strong ion difference (SID3), total plasma concentration of non-volatile weak acids (Atot) and strong ion gap (SIG) were calculated using validated equations. Urine samples were used to determine urine pH, osmolality and urinary-[Na+], [K+], [Cl?], and for the calculation of urine SID3. The mean values of pH, PCO2, [HCO3?], [BE], [AG], [SID3], [Atot] and [SIG] were 7.39 ±0.02, 6.4±0.9 kPa, 29.4±3.9, 4.2±3.9, 15.5±3, 45.2±2.9, 12.3±1.8 and 3.2±3.8 mmol/l, respectively. Serum- [Na+], [K+], [Cl?], [Pi], [TP], [albumin] and osmolality showed mean values of 139±2.8, 4.9±0.4, 98.7±2.4, 2.8±0.3 mmol/l, 59±7.6, 26±3 g/l, and 283±6.6 mOsmol/kg, whereas urine pH, osmolality, urinary- [Na+], [K+], [Cl?] and [SID3] were 6.7±0.5, 214±137 mOsmol/kg, 22±17, 47±33, 37±15 and 28±26 mmol/l, respectively. During the neonatal period, the pH correlated positively (P<0.0001) to [SID3] while PCO2, [HCO3-] and [BE] correlated (P<0.0001) positively to each other and negatively to [AG] and [SIG]. Serum-[SID3] correlated (P<0.0001) positively to the pH and [BE]. Serum-[AG] correlated (P<0.0001) positively to [SIG]. A positive correlation (P<0.05) was reported between [Na+]-[Cl?], [Na+]-[TP], [Cl?]-[albumin], [Pi]-[albumin], whereas the correlation was negative between [albumin] and [osmolality] (P<0.0001). The urine pH correlated positively (P<0.0001) to urine-[Na+] while urine osmolality correlated (P<0.0001) positively to [K+], [SID3] and [Cl-] (P<0.01).

A positive correlation (P?0.05) was observed between urinary-[Na+], [K+], [Cl-] and [SID3]. The neonatal period has an influence on acid-base status, serum electrolytes, albumin, and total proteins concentration. The data can utilise for the clinical monitoring of metabolic and acid-base disorders associated with the neonatal period. The data can be useful to develop a new strategy for the improvement of neonate care.


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How to Cite

Mohamed Elkhair, N. ., & Omer Alameen, A. . (2019). Assessment of Acid-Base Status, Certain Serum Biochemical and Urine Parameters during the Neonatal Period in Dairy Calves. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 60(1), 22–32. Retrieved from