Mycotoxines and/or Aflatoxines in Milk and Milk Products: Review


  • Melkamu Bezabih Yitbarek Debre Markos University
  • Birhan Tamir


mycotoxin, aflatoxin, milk, milk products.


This review was conducted to evaluate micotoxin and or aflatoxines in milk and milk products through critical review. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by the three major fungus genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium.  The contamination of food and feeds by Mycotoxin remains a worldwide problem, according to FAO  estimation   up to 25% of the world’s food crops are significantly contaminated with mycotoxin. Aflatoxin is one of aclasses of mycotoxin. The major aflatoxins are afflation B1, B2, G1 and G2.  Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1)   is the hepatic hydroxylated metabolites of AFB1. AFM1 is found in milk and milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested AFB1contaminated feed. In lactating animals the conversion rate of AFB1 to AFM1 ranges between 0.5 and 6%.   Several research workers reported that there is a linear relationship between the amount of AFM1 in milk and AFB1 in feed which is consumed by dairy cattle. Aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products is considered to pose certain hygienic risks for human health. These metabolites are not destroyed during the pasteurization and heating process. Many countries standards limits of Aflatoxins M1 ranged between 0 to 0.5 ppb, in milk and dairy products. 

Author Biography

Melkamu Bezabih Yitbarek, Debre Markos University

MSc in Livestock Production and pastoral Development. Now PhD student in Addis Ababa University,Ethiopia.


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How to Cite

Yitbarek, M. B., & Tamir, B. (2013). Mycotoxines and/or Aflatoxines in Milk and Milk Products: Review. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 4(1), 1–32. Retrieved from