A Review on Sustainability of Community-Led Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Systems with Special Reference to Berik Sub-Zone in Eritrea

  • Bipin Jha Lumbini International Academy of Science and Technology, Lalitpur, Nepal
  • Narbikram Thapa Lumbini International Academy of Science and Technology, Lalitpur, Nepal
  • Khet Raj Dahal Lumbini International Academy of Science and Technology, Lalitpur, Nepal
  • Michael Yoseph Water Resources Department, Ministry of Land, Water and Environment, Eritrea
Keywords: Community led water supply and sanitation system, community participation, sustainability, water sanitation and hygiene, monitoring and evaluation at community level


This Assessment of the Sustainability of Community-Led Rural Water Supply and Sanitation System with special reference to Berik Sub-Zone in Eritrea was conducted between August 2018 and March 2019. Both published and unpublished literatures collected from various sources were critically reviewed and thoroughly analysed. After the literature review it was found that the participatory approach was the best method for sustainability of any water supply and sanitation project. Water supply projects is sustainable when consumers are aware to pay user fees that are sufficient to cover all the costs. In the study area, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Committees have been formed with the participation of women, men and people with disabilities. There has been tariff collection of 0.5 Nakfa to 1 Nakfa per jerrycan of 20 litres, availability of trained technicians, spare parts and plumbing tools to conduct regular repair and maintenance of the water supply system. There is a practice of regular meeting, monitoring and proper accounting for the sustainability of the water supply and sanitation system. Also, community participation, linkages and coordination with the local and national government lead to sustainability of the water supply and sanitation scheme.


. Zeraebruk, K.N.; Mayabi, A.O.; Gathenya, J.M., (2014). Assessment of Level and Quality of Water Supply Service Delivery for Development of Decision Support Tools: Case Study Asmara Water Supply. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), Volume 14, No 1, pp 93-107.

. Yoseph, M. (2017), Effect of Community Based Management on Sustainability: The Case of Gala -Nefhi Sub Zone Water Supply Projects. (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). SMC University. Zug, Switzerland.

. Havey, P. and B. Reed (2004). Rural water supply in Africa: Building Blocks for Handpump Sustainability. Loughborough, WEDC publication, Loughborough University.

. Harvey, P.A. and R.A. Reed (2007). ‘Community-managed water supplies in Africa; sustainable or dispensable?’ Community Development Journal 42(3); 365-378.

. Water Aid (2011). Sustainability framework. Available online at www.wateraid.org/publications (Accessed 01.12.2018).

. Kaliba A, Norman D and Chang Y (2003). Willingness to pay to improve domestic water supply in ruler areas of center Anzania; implication for policy International journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology. 10(2); 119-132.

. Heck, B.V. (2003). Guidelines on Beneficiary Participation in Agricultural and Rural Development, Rural Institutions and Participation Service, Rural Development Division. Rome Italy.

. Bastian, S. and N. Bastian (1992). Assessing participation. Konark Publishers PVT Ltd.

. Kasiaka, K. (2004). Participatory Planning and Sustainability of Water. TASAF.

. Clark, J.F (2018). Implementation and Impact of a community Based Participatory Project on Childhood Obesity Prevention. UBC Medical Journal. 9(2) 44-45.

. Zohaib F., Muhammad J. and Muhammad B. (2016). Reason of the Unsustainable of Community Based Project; A critical Review Bulletin of Engineering IX, 147-149.

. UNICEF (2013). UNICEF Annual Report. UN, NY, USA.

. WCED (1987). Our Common Future. UN World Commission on Environment and Development Report. Switzerland.

. Aslam, M.S. (2013). Sustainability of Community-Based Drinking Water Systems in Developing Countries. McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

. UN Water (2015). Eliminating discrimination and inequalities in access to water and sanitation. P. 1–56.

. UNICEF (2015). Sustainability checks. Guidance to design and implement sustainability monitoring in WASH. UNICEF

. Costanza, R.; Patten, B.C., (1995). Defining & Predicting Sustainability. Ecological Economics; the Transdisplinary Journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics: (P 193-196).

. ASCE/UNESCO (1998). Sustainability Criteria for Water Resources Systems, Task Committee on Sustainability Criteria. Water Resources Planning and Management Division, ASCE, and Working Group of UNESCO/IHP IV Project M-4.3, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), USA.

. IFAD (2013). Sustainability of rural Development projects. IFAD Strategic Framework 2012-2014. Rome

. Aleksandar, G., & Olija, M. (2017). Brand Strategies in the Era of Sustainability. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex System. 15(1), 78-88. DOI: 10.7906/indecs.15.1.6

. Oino, P.G. and Towett, G. (2015). The Dilemma in Sustainability of Community-Based Projects in Kenya. Global Journal of Advanced Research. Vol-2, Issue-4, P. 757-768.

. Szabo, L. (2016). Sustainability, Creativity and Innovation in Project Management. Journal of Studies and Articles. XLVII, 10, 3-18.

. Aras, G., & Crowther, D. (2013). Governance and sustainability: An investigation into the Relationship between corporate Governance and corporate sustainability, management Decision. 46 (3): 433-448.

. Nici, N. and Susan, W. (2013). Power and Participatory Development: Theory and Practice. Intermediate Technology Publications.103/105 Southampton Row: London. WCIB 4HH, UK, 2-5.

. Khwaja, A. I. (2014). Is increasing community Participation always a good Thing? Journal of the European Economic Association April–May 2004 2(2–3):427– 436.

. Easterly, W. (2016). The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good. 15(3), 721-830.

. Narayan. D. (2013). Focus on Participation: Evidence from 121 Rural Water Supply Projects. UNDP-World Bank Water Supply and Sanitation Program, World Bank, Washington DC.

. Barasa, F., & Jelagat, T. (2013). Community Participation in Project Planning, Management and Implementation: Building the Foundation for Sustainable Development. International Journal of Current Research. 5(2), 398-401.

. Martina, B., & Jakob, S. (2013). Power to the People: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment on Community Based Monitoring in Uganda. The Quarterly Journal of Economics.

. Howard, W. (2014). Social Organization, Civic Responsibility and Collective Action: Game Theory Models of Community Participation in Development Projects. Oxford Development Studies. 31(2), 149-158.

. Okafor, C. (2015). Community Driven Development: Concepts and Procedure. LEEMP workshop in Kainji National Park, New Bussa.

. Mausuri, G., and Rao, V. (2013). Community based and Driven Development: A critical Review. The World Bank Research Observer, 19(1): 6, 31.

. Adesida, I.E., & Okunlola, J. (2015). Effect of Community Participation on the Sustainability of Rural Infrastructure in Ondo State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economic and Sociology. 7(1), 1-9.

. Ramzi, G.S., Elizabeth, A.S., Jordan,J.L., & David, A.C. (2017). Application of Discrete Choice Experiments to Enhance Stakeholder Engagement as a Strategy for advancing Implementation: A systematic Review. Implementation Science. 140(12), 1-12.

. Frantz, J.M., Filies,G., Jooste, K., Keim, M., Mlenzana, N., Laattoe, N....& Rhoda, A. (2016). Reflection on an Interprofessional Community Based Participatory Research Project. Africa Journal of Health Professions. 2(2), 234-237.

. IRC & WHO (2000). International Water and Sanitation Centre annual report. Available online at www.ircwash.org/resources/irc-international-waterand-sanitation-centre -annual-report-2000 (Accessed 25.12.2018).

. Sera, Y., & Beaudry, S. (2017). Monitoring & Evaluation: Tips for strengthening. Organizational Capacity. World Bank small grants program.

. UNDP (2013). Hand book on monitoring and Evaluating for results. United Nations Development Programme. New York, NY 10017, USA.

. Appollo, M., Holta, T., & Joel, H. (2013). Examining the Relationship between Community Participation and Program Outcome in a Met evaluation. Journal of Multidisciplinary Evaluation. 9(20), 1-17.

. IFRCRCS (2016). Project/programme Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) guide. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Retrieved from http://www.ifrc.org/Global/Publications/monitoring/IFRC-ME-Guide-8-2011.pdf on 22 Dec 2018.

. SWA & SDGs (2018), Current Situation. Retrieved from http://sanitationandwaterforall.org/about/swa-and-the-sdgs/

. MacLeod, M.; Pann, M.; Cantwell, R.; Moore, S., (2014). Issues in access to safe drinking water and basic hygiene for persons with physical disabilities in rural Cambodia. Cambodia: Journal of Water and Health, 12(4), p. 885

. WHO and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (2017). Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, Update and SDG Baselines. WHO and UNICEF.

. UN General Assembly (2015), Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, United Nations.

. Aquastat (2005). Irrigation in Africa in figures – AQUASTAT Survey.

. Alemngus, A.; Amlesom, S.; Bovas, J.J (2017), An Overview of Eritrea’s Water Resources. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, Vol 13, Issues 3

. WHO and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (2015). Retrieved from https://washdata.org/data/household#!/dashboard/new

. EPHS (2010), Eritrea Population and Health Survey, NSO, The State of Eritrea, p. 1-3.

. WRD (2007). Situation Analysis report: The State of Water Resources in Eritrea. Water Resources Department. Asmara, Eritrea: Government of State of Eritrea.