Epidemiology of Onychomycosis in Gujranwala Division-Pakistan

  • Anum Javed Department of Zoology, University of Sargodha (RCS, Sub campus), Narowal, 51750, Pakistan
  • Syed Muneeb Haider Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat (Sub campus), 1-KM Daska road, Sialkot, 51310, Pakistan
  • Nimra Akram Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat (Sub campus), 1-KM Daska road, Sialkot, 51310, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Usman Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat (Sub campus), 1-KM Daska road, Sialkot, 51310, Pakistan


Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of nails. It is usually further divided into four types which are Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO), white superficial onychomycosis (WSO), proximal subungual onychomycosis (PSO) and candidal onychomycosis (CO). The main causative agents of onychomycosis are three fungal forms: dermatophytes, yeasts, and non-dermatophytes molds. In current study, occurrence frequency of various types of onychomycosis was observed in a selected region of Pakistan. Collected data were statistically analyzed at 0.001% significance level by using single factor ANOVA for comparative examination on the basis of gender, age and onychomycosis types. Results indicated that males suffer more than females, adults are more prone to get onychomycosis attack and DLSO is frequently occurring than other forms. The root causes of this epidemiological trend were lack of personal hygiene and health care awareness among masses and knowledge about symptoms and effects of onychomycosis meanwhile poverty was also found as a leading indirect reason for the spread of this nail disorder. Future researchers should find out cost effect local alternatives for treatment and control of onychomycosis along with some general public awareness program.


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