Differences in Gait and Balance as a Result of Wearing 3, 5 and 7 cm Wedge and Non-Wedge Heeled Shoes

  • Cindy Prajna Metta Master Program of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prima Indonesia, Medan, Indonesia
  • Chrismis Novalinda Ginting Faculty of Medicine, University of Prima Indonesia, Medan, Indonesia
  • Linda Chiuman Faculty of Medicine, University of Prima Indonesia, Medan, Indonesia
  • Adrian Khu Faculty of Medicine, University of Prima Indonesia, Medan, Indonesia
Keywords: high heeled shoes, wedge, non-wedge, gait, balance.


Background: High heeled shoes have gained popularity as of late. Wearing such shoes not only results in physical changes to the foot joint and ankle, it also requires the wearer to maintain balance and stability at static as well as dynamic state in order to carry out daily functional activities. There are a few varieties of high heeled shoes with various heights and heel surface areas, such as the wedge and non-wedge style. Differences in heel surface area may result in different physical impacts on the wearer. Aim: To present evidence that the use of wedge and non-wedge style shoes at different heights (3, 5 and 7 cm) results in differences in terms of gait and balance. Method: Experimental study with pre and post test design. Subjects are women aged 22-24 years old with normal Body Mass Index (BMI). Thirty women who agreed to participate in the study and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly divided into 3 groups; the 3 cm, 5 cm and 7 cm group, each consisting of 10 subjects. Each group performed walking test to examine gait, one leg stand and tandem stand to examine balance while barefoot, wearing wedge style shoes and wearing non-wedge style shoes with the same height. Results: The result of this study indicates significant change in gait and balance between barefoot state and the use of high heeled shoes, both wedge style and non-wedge style (p=0.000). However, there were no significant differences in the impact of wearing 3, 5 and 7 cm wedge shoes on gait (p=0.673) and balance (p=0.200). Insignificant differences in gait (p=0.257) and balance (p=0.961) as a result of wearing non-wedge shoes at the different heights were also found. The difference in gait as a result of wearing wedge and non-wedge was not significant (p=0.111), while the difference in balance as a result of wearing non-wedge and wedge was significant (p=0.000). Conclusion: There is difference in balance but not gait as a result of wearing wedge style shoes compared to non-wedge style shoes with different heights (3, 5 and 7 cm).


Weon, Jong Hyuck & Hyun Gyu Cha. “The Influence of High Heeled Shoes on Balance Ability and Walking in Healthy Women”. J Phys Ther. Sci., 30: 910–912, 2018.

Lee CM, Jeong EH, Freivalds A. “Biomechanical Effects of Wearing High-Heeled Shoes”. Int J Ind Ergon, 28:321–326, 2001.

Lee, CM & Jeong EH. “The Study on Musculoskeletal Effects of Heel Types”. J Ergon Soc Korea, 23:39-48, 2004.

Luximon Yan, Yu J, Luximon A, Zhang M. “Biomechanical Evaluation of Heel Elevation on Load Transfer – Experimental Measurement and Finite Element Analysis”. Acta. Mech. Sin., 28(1): 232-240, 2012.

Espy DD, Yang F, Bhatt T, Pain NYC. “Independent Influence of Gait Speed and Step Length on Stability and Fall Risk”. Gait Posture, 32(3): 378–82, 2010.

Permatasari, GA. “Perbedaan Pengaruh Sepatu Berhak Wedge dan Non-Wedge Terhadap Gait dan Keseimbangan”. JKD, 6(2):576-582, 2017.