Characterization and Efficacy of Bio-oil Obtained from Liquefied Hardwood Bark as Wood Preservative
AbstractThe efficacy of bio-oil obtained via solvolysis liquefaction of Detarium senegalense J.F. Gmel bark as bio-preservative against fungi attack on Gmelina arborea wood was investigated, as a way of contributing to unrelenting researches aimed at achieving sustainable environment and preserving lignocellulosic materials. Ethanol, water and co-solvent of ethanol/water were used to directly liquefy D. senegalense bark at 300oC for 30min. The result of the structural compositional characterization reveals that, D. senegalense bark is composed of an average of 35.2% lignin, 46.8% cellulose and 18.0% hemicellulose. The result of the elemental analysis also showed that Detarium senegalense is composed of 53.82% carbon, 36.8% oxygen, 7.32% hydrogen, 0.14% nitrogen and 0.08% sulphur. Molecular weight characterization of the bio-oil as determined by the Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) revealed the bio-oils obtained from liquefaction using ethanol, water and ethanol/water mix had molecular weights of 15.56 x 102 Da, 14.17 x 102 Da, and 16.93 x 102 Da at an average respectively. Viscosity of the bio-oil obtained from liquefaction with ethanol/water was the highest and it was observed that viscosity increases as percentage concentration of the bio-oils increases. The FT-IR characterization of the bio-oils revealed the presence of primarily phenolic compounds and their derivatives such as benzenes, aldehyde, long-chain and cyclic ketones, alcohols, ester, organic acid, and ether compounds. Wood samples of Gmelina arborea of dimensions 50 x50 x 300mm were impregnated using vacuum method. The wood samples were exposed to brown rot fungi; (Coniophora puteana) for a period of 6 weeks. The percentage weight loss was determined. Maximum protection against the fungi was obtained using the co-solvent of ethanol/water at all the concentration levels. These results strongly suggested that synergistic effect of co-solvent of ethanol and water enhances the durability of Gmelina arborea wood at all levels of concentration. It was however, observed that high concentration does not implies ability to cause minimal weight loss in Gmelina arborea wood treated liquefied bio-oils. From this investigation, it was established that bio-oil obtained via solvolysis liquefaction of Detarium senegalense bark is a potential bio-preservative against fungi attack on of Gmelina arborea wood
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