Waterborne Epoxy Based Coating Materials

  • Sarvat Zafar Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 2097, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: waterborne epoxy, eco-friendly, synthesis, curing agent, coatings.


Epoxy resins were commercially introduced as binders in protective organic coatings due to their outstanding processability, great adherence to many substrates, excellent chemical, and corrosion resistance properties. Besides the concern about volatile organic compounds (VOCs), efforts have been made towards the development of waterborne epoxy (WBE) based corrosion resistant materials and coatings which are low energy-curing and less toxic during the application process. Literature survey reveals that WBE has immense potential, significance, and applications in the field of paints and coatings. The aim of this book review is to represent the synthesis of WBE, curing agents used for WBE, current and past use of conventional WBE based systems and their use as binders in protective coatings.


M. de Meijer, "Review on the durability of exterior wood coatings with reduced VOC-content," Progress in organic coatings, vol. 43, pp. 217-225, 2001.

P. Geurink, T. Scherer, R. Buter, A. Steenbergen, and H. Henderiks, "A complete new design for waterborne 2-pack PUR coatings with robust application properties," Progress in organic coatings, vol. 55, pp. 119-127, 2006.

H. Tanabe and H. Ohsugi, "A new resin system for super high solids coating," Progress in organic coatings, vol. 32, pp. 197-203, 1997.

E. A. Murillo and B. L. López, "Novel waterborne hyperbranched acrylated-maleinized alkyd resins," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 72, pp. 731-738, 2011.

Y. Nakayama, "Polymer blend systems for water-borne paints," Progress in organic coatings, vol. 33, pp. 108-116, 1998.

F. Galliano and D. Landolt, "Evaluation of corrosion protection properties of additives for waterborne epoxy coatings on steel," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 44, pp. 217-225, 2002.

H. D. Hwang, J. I. Moon, J. H. Choi, H. J. Kim, S. Do Kim, and J. C. Park, "Effect of water drying conditions on the surface property and morphology of waterborne UV-curable coatings for engineered flooring," Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 15, pp. 381-387, 2009.

S. Xinrong, W. Nanfang, S. Kunyang, D. Sha, and C. Zhen, "Synthesis and characterization of waterborne polyurethane containing UV absorption group for finishing of cotton fabrics," Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 20, pp. 3228-3233, 2014.

A. Schieweck and M. C. Bock, "Emissions from low-VOC and zero-VOC paints–Valuable alternatives to conventional formulations also for use in sensitive environments?," Building and Environment, vol. 85, pp. 243-252, 2015.

K. D. Weiss, "Paint and coatings: a mature industry in transition," Progress in polymer science, vol. 22, pp. 203-245, 1997.

E. Zhavoronok, I. Senchikhin, V. Vysotskii, and V. Roldugin, "Effect of the nature and associate structure of an epoxy oligomer on the rate of its curing with diamine," Polymer Science, Series B, vol. 59, pp. 421-429, 2017.

F. L. Jin, X. Li, and S. J. Park, "Synthesis and application of epoxy resins: A review," Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 29, pp. 1-11, 2015.

S. Zheng, J. Pascault, and R. Williams, "Epoxy polymers: new materials and innovations," Pascault, JP, Williams, RJJ, Eds, 2010.

J. P. Pascault, H. Sautereau, J. Verdu, and R. J. Williams, Thermosetting polymers vol. 477: Marcel Dekker New York, 2002.

I. K. Hong, Y. S. Yoon, and S.-B. Lee, "Selection of thinner for epoxy type resins for neon transformer housing," Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 18, pp. 1997-2003, 2012.

W. Jiang, F.-L. Jin, and S.-J. Park, "Thermo-mechanical behaviors of epoxy resins reinforced with nano-Al2O3 particles," Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 18, pp. 594-596, 2012.

S. Zafar, F. Zafar, U. Riaz, and S. Ahmad, "Synthesis, characterization, and anticorrosive coating properties of waterborne interpenetrating polymer network based on epoxy‐acrylic‐oleic acid with butylated melamine formaldehyde," Journal of applied polymer science, vol. 113, pp. 827-838, 2009.

E. Potvin, L. Brossard, and G. Larochelle, "Corrosion protective performances of commercial low-VOC epoxy/urethane coatings on hot-rolled 1010 mild steel," Progress in organic coatings, vol. 31, pp. 363-373, 1997.

D. Klein and K. Jörg, "Two-component aqueous epoxy binders free of volatile organic content (VOC)," Progress in organic coatings, vol. 32, pp. 119-125, 1997.

Z. Zhaoying, H. Yuhui, L. Bing, and C. Guangming, "Studies on particle size of waterborne emulsions derived from epoxy resin," European Polymer Journal, vol. 37, pp. 1207-1211, 2001.

S. Zafar, U. Riaz, and S. Ahmad, "Water‐borne melamine–formaldehyde‐cured epoxy–acrylate corrosion resistant coatings," Journal of applied polymer science, vol. 107, pp. 215-222, 2008.

S. Liu, L. Gu, H. Zhao, J. Chen, and H. Yu, "Corrosion resistance of graphene-reinforced waterborne epoxy coatings," Journal of Materials Science & Technology, vol. 32, pp. 425-431, 2016.

G. m. Wu, Z. w. Kong, J. Chen, S.-p. Huo, and G.-f. Liu, "Preparation and properties of waterborne polyurethane/epoxy resin composite coating from anionic terpene-based polyol dispersion," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 77, pp. 315-321, 2014.

S. Xu, N. Girouard, G. Schueneman, M. L. Shofner, and J. C. Meredith, "Mechanical and thermal properties of waterborne epoxy composites containing cellulose nanocrystals," Polymer, vol. 54, pp. 6589-6598, 2013.

F. H. Walker, J. B. Dickenson, C. R. Hegedus, and F. R. Pepe, "Cationic polymerization of emulsified epoxy resins," Progress in organic coatings, vol. 45, pp. 291-303, 2002.

J. T. Woo and A. Toman, "Water-based epoxy-acrylic graft copolymer," Progress in organic Coatings, vol. 21, pp. 371-385, 1993.

L. Chen, L. Hong, J.-C. Lin, G. Meyers, J. Harris, and M. Radler, "Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization," Journal of colloid and interface science, vol. 473, pp. 182-189, 2016.

R. Parmar, K. Patel, and J. Parmar, "High‐performance waterborne coatings based on epoxy‐acrylic‐graft‐copolymer‐modified polyurethane dispersions," Polymer International, vol. 54, pp. 488-494, 2005.

K. Zhang, H. q. Fu, H. Huang, and H. q. Chen, "Waterborne Epoxy‐Acrylic Dispersions Modified by Siloxane," Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, vol. 28, pp. 1209-1217, 2007.

H. Sun, W. Ni, B. Yuan, T. Wang, P. Li, Y. Liu, et al., "Synthesis and characterization of emulsion‐type curing agent of water‐borne epoxy resin," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 130, pp. 2652-2659, 2013.

K. D. Suh, Y. S. Chon, and J. Y. Kim, "Preparation of UV curable emulsions using PEG-modified urethane acrylates and their coating properties III: Effects of epoxy acrylate," Polymer bulletin, vol. 38, pp. 287-294, 1997.

V. H. Pham, Y. W. Ha, S. H. Kim, H. T. Jeong, M. Y. Jung, B. S. Ko, et al., "Synthesis of epoxy encapsulated organoclay nanocomposite latex via phase inversion emulsification and its gas barrier property," Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 20, pp. 108-112, 2014.

A. Wegmann, "Novel waterborne epoxy resin emulsion," JCT, Journal of coatings technology, vol. 65, pp. 27-34, 1993.

G. Pan, L. Wu, Z. Zhang, and D. Li, "Synthesis and characterization of epoxy‐acrylate composite latex," Journal of Applied polymer science, vol. 83, pp. 1736-1743, 2002.

E. Tang, F. Bian, A. Klein, M. El-Aasser, S. Liu, M. Yuan, et al., "Fabrication of an epoxy graft poly (St-acrylate) composite latex and its functional properties as a steel coating," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 77, pp. 1854-1860, 2014.

A. R. Mahdavian, M. Ashjari, and A. B. Makoo, "Preparation of poly (styrene–methyl methacrylate)/SiO2 composite nanoparticles via emulsion polymerization. An investigation into the compatiblization," European Polymer Journal, vol. 43, pp. 336-344, 2007.

R. Wei, Y. Luo, and Z. Li, "Synthesis of structured nanoparticles of styrene/butadiene block copolymers via RAFT seeded emulsion polymerization," Polymer, vol. 51, pp. 3879-3886, 2010.

K. R. Christopher, A. Pal, G. Mirchandani, and T. Dhar, "Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene-acrylate/polysiloxane (PSA/PSi) core shell polymers and evaluation of their properties for high durable exterior coatings," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 77, pp. 1063-1068, 2014.

N. Pokeržnik and M. Krajnc, "Synthesis of a glucose-based surfmer and its copolymerization with n-butyl acrylate for emulsion pressure sensitive adhesives," European Polymer Journal, vol. 68, pp. 558-572, 2015.

J. C. Garay-Jimenez, D. Gergeres, A. Young, D. V. Lim, and E. Turos, "Physical properties and biological activity of poly (butyl acrylate–styrene) nanoparticle emulsions prepared with conventional and polymerizable surfactants," Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 443-451, 2009.

S. Tolue, M. R. Moghbeli, and S. M. Ghafelebashi, "Preparation of ASA (acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate) structural latexes via seeded emulsion polymerization," European Polymer Journal, vol. 45, pp. 714-720, 2009.

J. M. Asua, "Miniemulsion polymerization," Progress in polymer science, vol. 27, pp. 1283-1346, 2002.

J. Ugelstad, F. K. Hansen, and S. Lange, "Emulsion polymerization of styrene with sodium hexadecyl sulphate/hexadecanol mixtures as emulsifiers. Initiation in monomer droplets," Die Makromolekulare Chemie: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, vol. 175, pp. 507-521, 1974.

F. K. Hansen and J. Ugelstad, "Particle nucleation in emulsion polymerization. IV. Nucleation in monomer droplets," Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry Edition, vol. 17, pp. 3069-3082, 1979.

D. De Wet‐Roos, J. Knoetze, B. Cooray, and R. Sanderson, "Emulsion polymerization of an epoxy‐acrylate emulsion stabilized with polyacrylate. i. influence of salt, initiator, neutralizing amine, and stirring speed," Journal of applied polymer science, vol. 71, pp. 1347-1360, 1999.

J. l. Zhou and W. p. Tu, "Synthesis of nonionic type self-emulsified waterborne epoxy curing agent and its properties," Journal of Chemical Engineering of Chinese Universities, vol. 20, p. 94, 2006.

H. Kawahara, S. Matsufuji, T. Goto, Y. Okamoto, H. Ogura, H. Kage, et al., "Epoxy resin/acrylic composite latexes: reactivity and stability of epoxy groups with carboxyl groups," Advanced Powder Technology, vol. 12, pp. 521-532, 2001.

M. Durand, V. Molinier, T. Féron, and J.-M. Aubry, "Isosorbide mono-and di-alkyl ethers, a new class of sustainable coalescents for water-borne paints," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 69, pp. 344-351, 2010.

C. L. Rodriguez, J. Weathers, B. Corujo, and P. Peterson, "Formulating water-based systems with propylene-oxide-based glycol ethers," Journal of Coatings Technology, vol. 72, pp. 67-72, 2000.

S. Gupta and M. Shukla, "Water soluble epoxy resins for cathodic electrodeposition coatings," Pigment & resin technology, vol. 21, pp. 4-7, 1992.

M. F. Mustafa, W. D. Cook, T. L. Schiller, and H. M. Siddiqi, "Curing behavior and thermal properties of TGDDM copolymerized with a new pyridine-containing diamine and with DDM or DDS," Thermochimica Acta, vol. 575, pp. 21-28, 2014.

M. Liu, X. Mao, H. Zhu, A. Lin, and D. Wang, "Water and corrosion resistance of epoxy–acrylic–amine waterborne coatings: Effects of resin molecular weight, polar group and hydrophobic segment," Corrosion Science, vol. 75, pp. 106-113, 2013.

M. Ghaemy, M. Barghamadi, and H. Behmadi, "Cure kinetics of epoxy resin and aromatic diamines," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 94, pp. 1049-1056, 2004.

X. Xiong, R. Ren, S. Liu, S. Lu, and P. Chen, "The curing kinetics and thermal properties of epoxy resins cured by aromatic diamine with hetero-cyclic side chain structure," Thermochimica Acta, vol. 595, pp. 22-27, 2014.

P. Murias, H. Maciejewski, and H. Galina, "Epoxy resins modified with reactive low molecular weight siloxanes," European Polymer Journal, vol. 48, pp. 769-773, 2012.

H. Ren, W. Chen, and L. Fan, "Study on the cure kinetics of a silicone-modified waterborne epoxy curing agent by the advanced isoconversional method," Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 49, pp. 836-840, 2010.

X. Yang, W. Huang, and Y. Yu, "Synthesis, characterization, and properties of silicone–epoxy resins," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 120, pp. 1216-1224, 2011.

M. Kathalewar and A. Sabnis, "Effect of molecular weight of phenalkamines on the curing, mechanical, thermal and anticorrosive properties of epoxy based coatings," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 84, pp. 79-88, 2015.

A. Wegmann, "Freeze-thaw stability of epoxy resin emulsions," Pigment & resin technology, vol. 26, pp. 153-160, 1997.

S. Han, H. Gyu Yoon, K. S. Suh, W. Gun Kim, and T. Jin Moon, "Cure kinetics of biphenyl epoxy‐phenol novolac resin system using triphenylphosphine as catalyst," Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, vol. 37, pp. 713-720, 1999.

L. Liu, J. Li, X. Zhang, and K. Jin, "The preparation of a three-layer “core–shell” structured epoxy-acrylate emulsion," RSC Advances, vol. 4, pp. 47184-47190, 2014.

K. Mequanint and R. Sanderson, "Nano-structure phosphorus-containing polyurethane dispersions: synthesis and crosslinking with melamine formaldehyde resin," Polymer, vol. 44, pp. 2631-2639, 2003.

S. Cheraghi, H. J. Naghash, and M. Younesi, "RETRACTED: Synthesis and characterization of two novel heterocyclic monomers bearing allylic function and their applications in the epoxy-acrylic-amine waterborne coatings," ed: Elsevier, 2015.

M. Bagherzadeh, F. Mahdavi, M. Ghasemi, H. Shariatpanahi, and H. Faridi, "Using nanoemeraldine salt-polyaniline for preparation of a new anticorrosive water-based epoxy coating," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 68, pp. 319-322, 2010.

S. Ahmad, S. Ashraf, G. Kumar, A. Hasnat, and E. Sharmin, "Studies on epoxy-butylated melamine formaldehyde-based anticorrosive coatings from a sustainable resource," Progress in organic coatings, vol. 56, pp. 207-213, 2006.

C. Hawkins, A. Sheppard, and T. Wood, "Recent advances in aqueous two-component systems for heavy-duty metal protection," Progress in organic coatings, vol. 32, pp. 253-261, 1997.

W. Schneider, "Ambient temperature curing waterborne epoxy systems," Materials performance, vol. 30, pp. 28-32, 1991.

F. H. Walker, "Amide-containing self-emulsifying epoxy curing agent," ed: Google Patents, 1997.

L. Guangqi, S. Jianzhong, and Z. Qiyun, "Synthesis and characterization of waterborne epoxy curing agent modified by silane," Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 15, pp. 899-905, 2007.

M. J. Chen, F. D. Osterholtz, A. Chaves, P. E. Ramdatt, and B. A. Waldman, "Epoxy silanes in reactive polymer emulsions," Journal of Coatings Technology, vol. 69, pp. 49-55, 1997.

X. Xiao and C. Hao, "Preparation of waterborne epoxy acrylate/silica sol hybrid materials and study of their UV curing behavior," Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 359, pp. 82-87, 2010.

J. Woo, V. Ting, J. Evans, R. Marcinko, G. Carlson, and C. Ortiz, "Synthesis and characterization of water-reducible graft epoxy copolymers," Journal of Coatings Technology, vol. 54, pp. 41-55, 1982.

F. Chu, T. F. McKenna, Y. Jiang, and S. Lu, "A study of the preparation and mechanism of the ambient temperature curing of acrylic latex with epoxy resins," Polymer, vol. 38, pp. 6157-6165, 1997.

S. X. Li, W. F. Wang, L. M. Liu, and G. Y. Liu, "Morphology and characterization of epoxy-acrylate composite particles," Polymer bulletin, vol. 61, pp. 749-757, 2008.

S. Sun, P. Sun, and D. Liu, "The study of esterifying reaction between epoxy resins and carboxyl acrylic polymers in the presence of tertiary amine," European polymer journal, vol. 41, pp. 913-922, 2005.

J. Gao, H. Lv, X. Zhang, and H. Zhao, "Syntheshis and properties of waterborne epoxy acrylate nanocomposite coating modified by MAP-POSS," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 76, pp. 1477-1483, 2013.

S. Mishra, J. Singh, and V. Choudhary, "Synthesis and characterization of butyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate/glycidyl methacrylate latexes," Journal of applied polymer science, vol. 115, pp. 549-557, 2010.

J. P. Kennedy, "Free radical and ionic grafting," in Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Symposia, 1978, pp. 117-124.

D. Ramesh and T. Vasudevan, "Synthesis and physico-chemical evaluation of water-soluble epoxy ester primer coating," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 66, pp. 93-98, 2009.

Y. Liu, C. P. Wu, and C. Y. Pan, "Effect of chemical crosslinking on the structure and mechanical properties of polyurethane prepared from copoly (PPO–THF) triols," Journal of applied polymer science, vol. 67, pp. 2163-2169, 1998.

Z. Ge and Y. Luo, "Synthesis and characterization of siloxane-modified two-component waterborne polyurethane," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 76, pp. 1522-1526, 2013.

L. Chen and S. Chen, "Latex interpenetrating networks based on polyurethane, polyacrylate and epoxy resin," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 49, pp. 252-258, 2004.

J. Gao, F. L. Zhu, J. Yang, and X. Liu, "Synthesis and curing kinetics of UV-curable waterborne bisphenol-Sepoxy-acrylate/polyurethane-acrylate/methylacryloylpropyl-POSS nanocomposites," Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part B, vol. 53, pp. 1800-1813, 2014.

K. Raghupathy and S. Guruviah, "Water-Borne Air-Drying Coatings Based on Epoxy Ester for Protection of Metals," Bull. Electrochem., vol. 5, pp. 511-512, 1989.

A. P. Singh, G. Gunasekaran, C. Suryanarayana, and R. B. Naik, "Fatty acid based waterborne air drying epoxy ester resin for coating applications," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 87, pp. 95-105, 2015.

D. Shikha, P. Kamani, and M. Shukla, "Studies on synthesis of water-borne epoxy ester based on RBO fatty acids," Progress in organic coatings, vol. 47, pp. 87-94, 2003.

N. Krishnamurti, M. Shirsalkar, and M. Sivasamban, "Water soluble epoxy resin fatty acid esters," Paint and Resin, vol. 59, p. 30, 1989.

J. T. Derksen, F. P. Cuperus, and P. Kolster, "Renewable resources in coatings technology: a review," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 27, pp. 45-53, 1996.

V. D. Athawale and R. V. Nimbalkar, "Waterborne coatings based on renewable oil resources: an overview," Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 88, pp. 159-185, 2011.

K. Krishnamurti, "Water-soluble epoxy resins for surface coatings," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 11, pp. 167-197, 1983.

M. M. Ruiz, J. Y. Cavaillé, A. Dufresne, C. Graillat, and J. F. Gérard, "New waterborne epoxy coatings based on cellulose nanofillers," in Macromolecular Symposia, 2001, pp. 211-222.

Y. Bautista, M. Gómez, C. Ribes, and V. Sanz, "Relation between the scratch resistance and the chemical structure of organic–inorganic hybrid coatings," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 70, pp. 358-364, 2011.

S. Kango, S. Kalia, A. Celli, J. Njuguna, Y. Habibi, and R. Kumar, "Surface modification of inorganic nanoparticles for development of organic–inorganic nanocomposites—a review," Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 38, pp. 1232-1261, 2013.

T. Fu, C. Wen, J. Lu, Y. Zhou, S. Ma, B. Dong, et al., "Sol-gel derived TiO2 coating on plasma nitrided 316L stainless steel," Vacuum, vol. 86, pp. 1402-1407, 2012.

M.-C. Lai, K.-C. Chang, J.-M. Yeh, S.-J. Liou, M.-F. Hsieh, and H.-S. Chang, "Advanced environmentally friendly anticorrosive materials prepared from water-based polyacrylate/Na+-MMT clay nanocomposite latexes," European Polymer Journal, vol. 43, pp. 4219-4228, 2007.

A. Usuki, N. Hasegawa, M. Kato, and S. Kobayashi, "Polymer-clay nanocomposites," in Inorganic polymeric nanocomposites and membranes, ed: Springer, 2005, pp. 135-195.

M. Bagherzadeh and T. Mousavinejad, "Preparation and investigation of anticorrosion properties of the water-based epoxy-clay nanocoating modified by Na+-MMT and Cloisite 30B," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 74, pp. 589-595, 2012.

K. Kowalczyk and T. Spychaj, "Epoxy coatings with modified montmorillonites," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 62, pp. 425-429, 2008.

T. T. X. Hang, T. A. Truc, T. H. Nam, V. K. Oanh, J.-B. Jorcin, and N. Pébère, "Corrosion protection of carbon steel by an epoxy resin containing organically modified clay," Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, pp. 7408-7415, 2007.

X. Wang, X. Wang, L. Song, W. Xing, G. Tang, W. Hu, et al., "Preparation and thermal stability of UV-cured epoxy-based coatings modified with octamercaptopropyl POSS," Thermochimica acta, vol. 568, pp. 130-139, 2013.

G.-m. Wu, D. Liu, G.-f. Liu, J. Chen, S.-p. Huo, and Z.-w. Kong, "Thermoset nanocomposites from waterborne bio-based epoxy resin and cellulose nanowhiskers," Carbohydrate polymers, vol. 127, pp. 229-235, 2015.

M. N. Katariya, A. K. Jana, and P. A. Parikh, "Corrosion inhibition effectiveness of zeolite ZSM-5 coating on mild steel against various organic acids and its antimicrobial activity," Journal of industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 19, pp. 286-291, 2013.

Y. Hao, F. Liu, and E.-H. Han, "Protection of epoxy coatings containing polyaniline modified ultra-short glass fibers," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 76, pp. 571-580, 2013.

W. Sun, X. Yan, and X. Zhu, "The synthetic kinetics and underwater acoustic absorption properties of novel epoxyurethanes and their blends with epoxy resin," Polymer bulletin, vol. 69, pp. 621-633, 2012.

W. Lenhard, U. Neumann, and W. Collong, "Amino resin curable water reducible epoxy systems for automotive refinishing paints," Progress in organic coatings, vol. 32, pp. 127-130, 1997.

M. Yao, E. Tang, C. Guo, S. Liu, H. Tian, and H. Gao, "Synthesis of waterborne epoxy/polyacrylate composites via miniemulsion polymerization and corrosion resistance of coatings," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 113, pp. 143-150, 2017.

A. Wegmann, "Chemical resistance of waterborne epoxy/amine coatings," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 32, pp. 231-239, 1997.