Possible Solutions to the Challenges of Domestic Water Pricing for Mandalay City

  • Tin Nwe Nwe Htun
  • Nilar Aye
Keywords: domestic water pricing, challenges, possible solutions, Mandalay City.


This paper focuses on the possible solutions to the challenges of domestic water pricing in Mandalay City. The current water pricing of Mandalay City is necessary to reform as they cannot cover the operation and maintenance cost of the supply system and cannot expand the water network to the unconnected households. For reforming water pricing, the challenges of domestic water pricing for Mandalay City are identified as eight major challenges based on previous study. For reforming water price, questionnaire survey is done to 286 households from six townships of Mandalay City to know the willingness to pay (WTP) of consumers and price elasticity of domestic water demand is evaluated by using mid-point formula. To solve the challenges of water infrastructure deterioration, public-private- people-partnership (4P) is proposed as one of possible solutions for financial efficiency of the supply system. For reducing non-revenue water (NRW), field survey is done in Daewon ward of Mandalay City as a pilot area to investigate the causes of water losses and then possible solutions are proposed. The possible solutions for remaining six challenges are proposed by studying the secondary academic sources such as papers, journals, and books. In this paper, eight numbers of possible solutions are proposed for the challenges of domestic water pricing in Mandalay City.


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